Virus H5N1 Modificado es un Complot para vender Tamiflu?

Los científicos se contradicen, ya que habían declarado que el súper virus había sido creado en experimentos de laboratorio.

POR LUIS MIRANDA | THE REAL AGENDA | 06 ABRIL 2012

Dos polémicos proyectos de investigación con el virus de la gripe aviar H5N1 no han producido un organismo asesino, pero han generado información útil, dos investigadores dijeron a científicos y bioéticos que se reunieron aquí para hablar de los beneficios y riesgos de la manipulación de patógenos mortales.

“Podemos usar esta información para entender lo que está ocurriendo en la naturaleza”, dijo Yoshihiro Kawaoka de la Universidad de Wisconsin, al grupo que se reúne para debatir experiencias sobre la cepa de la gripe tan temida que ha infectado a 600 personas, matando a más de la mitad de ellos, desde el año 2003. Dijo que su trabajo ya está arrojando luz sobre los brotes en Egipto, el país con el segundo número más grande de casos de H5N1 en ese período.

La reunión en la Royal Society fue realizada después que dos revistas científicas acordaron en diciembre censurar la publicación de dos documentos sobre los experimentos con el vírus de la gripe aviar, ya que se cree que contienen información muy peligrosa para el consumo público. Se les pidió a las revistas no publicar la información después de que el Consejo Nacional de Ciencia para la Biodiversidad llegara a la conclusión que los resultados de los experimentos realizados con fondos federales podrían caer en las manos de terroristas quienes entonces los podrían usar para atacar centros poblacionales.

Ese comité cambió de opinión la semana pasada después de un examen más detenido de los datos antiguos y nuevos proporcionados por Kawaoka y Fouchier, quienes encabezan un equipo de investigadores del Centro Médico Erasmus en Rotterdam. Las revistas, Nature y Science, dicen que van a publicar los trabajos en breve.

Algunos detalles del experimento de Fouchier fueron publicados el mes pasado, disipando algunos temores sobre sus peligros. Kawaoka reveló una versión aún más completa de su trabajo el martes, parar distender preocupaciones. Numerosos lectores, sin embargo, dijeron que es sólo cuestión de tiempo antes de saber si  la publicación de los resultados de “investigaciones de doble uso” podría ser utilizada para bien o para mal – la próxima vez.

Normalmente, la gripe aviar es difícil que ser contraída por las personas. Se requiere un contacto estrecho con aves enfermas y casi nunca se pasa de persona a persona. La facilidad de transmisión es principalmente determinada por la estructura de una proteína, la hemaglutinina. Kawaoka quería saber si mutaciones en el gen de esa proteína podrían hacer que el virus se tornara más contagioso en las personas.

El puso un gen de la gripe aviar en el gen de la hemaglutinina de la pandemia de 2009 en el virus de la gripe porcina y por diversos métodos inducidos resulto en cuatro mutaciones. El virus final se transmitió fácilmente entre hurones, a diferencia de los virus que contienen un gen “salvaje” de la gripe aviar en la hemaglutinina. Sin embargo, el virus ingeniado no mata a los animales y ni siquiera los enferma tanto como el virus de la gripe porcina. Las infecciones fueron fácilmente combatidas con el medicamento Tamiflu.

En resumen, no se trataba del virus del juicio final, como los rumores sobre el trabajo de Kawaoka y  Fouchier habían sugerido. Fue, sin embargo, útil, Kawaoka sostuvo en la audiencia realizada en la Royal Society ante aproximadamente 250 personas.

Tres de las cuatro mutaciones estaban cerca de una parte de la proteína hemaglutinina que se une a las células de la nariz, la garganta y los pulmones. Muestras de H5N1 de la gripe procedentes de Egipto son más propensas a tener cambios en esa parte de la proteína que las muestras que se encuentran en otras. En los últimos tres años, el 71 por ciento de las muestras de pollos egipcios y todas las muestras de casos humanos, tienen mutaciones en ese sitio.

Esto sugiere que la gripe aviar en Egipto tiene una propensión particular para la infección humana y puede justificar una vigilancia mayor. “Esta información es importante para la evaluación del riesgo”, dijo Kawaoka.

El experimento de Fouchier comenzó con un virus completo H5N1 que venía de Indonesia, el cual ha aparecido más en humanos que en cualquier otro país. A continuación, los genes fueron genéticamente manipulados de una manera que no se le permite describir, porque el gobierno holandés ha puesto un “control de exportaciones” en la información. En una reunión en Washington en marzo, sin embargo, Fouchier reveló que el virus mató a los hurones al ser respirado directamente. Cuando el virus pasó de jaula en jaula en el aire, los animales tosieron y estornudaron, pero ninguno murió.

“Hemos escuchado en la prensa que si este se escapa, va a matar a la mitad la población mundial. Me parece muy dudoso “, dijo el martes. Sin embargo, muchas personas que leyeron el manuscrito Fouchier proporcionado al grupo especial de bioseguridad dijeron que era imposible decir cuán letal virus era.

“No estaba claro. No estaba claro “, dijo Robert G. Webster, un investigador de la gripe del Hospital de Investigación Infantil St. Jude en Memphis, a quien el Comité pidió consejo. Y añadió: “Hubo un gran malentendido por mi parte, y por parte del [comité], sobre la cuestión de un virus letal transmisible en los hurones.”

Fouchier ha aclarado eso.

Traducido del artículo original: Controversial bird flu experiments produced no killer virus, scientists say

H5N1 GMO Virus a plot to sell Tamiflu?

Scientists contradict themselves as they stated the super virus had been created in lab experiment.

By DAVID BROWN | WASHINGTON POST | APRIL 4, 2012

Two controversial research projects with the H5N1 bird flu virus haven’t produced a killer bug but have generated useful information, two researchers told scientists and bioethicists gathered here to talk about the benefits and pitfalls of manipulating deadly pathogens.

“We can use this information to understand what’s happening in nature,” Yoshihiro Kawaoka of the University of Wisconsin told the group, which is meeting to discuss experiments on the much-feared flu strain that has infected 600 people, killing more than half of them, since 2003. He said his work is already shedding light on outbreaks in Egypt, the country with the second-largest number of H5N1 cases over that period.

The meeting at the Royal Society was called after two science journals agreed in December to hold off publishing two papers on the bird flu experiments because they were thought to contain information too dangerous for public consumption. The journals were asked to do so by the National Science Advisory Board for Biosecurity, a committee of scientists that advises the U.S. government about federally funded research, such as these experiments.

That committee changed its mind last week after a closer examination of old and new data provided by Kawaoka and Ron Fouchier, who heads a research team at Erasmus Medical Center in Rotterdam. The journals, Nature and Science, say they plan to publish the papers soon.

A few details of Fouchier’s experiment were released last month, allaying some fears about its hazards. Kawaoka revealed an even fuller version of his work here Tuesday, further defusing worries. Numerous listeners, however, said it is only a matter of time before the question of whether to publish the results of “dual-use research” — research that could be used for good or bad purposes — comes up again.

Normally, bird flu is hard for people to catch. It requires close contact with sick birds and almost never passes from person to person. The ease of transmission is mostly determined by the structure of one protein, hemagglutinin. Kawaoka wanted to find out what mutations in that protein’s gene might make the virus more contagious in people.

He put a bird flu hemagglutinin gene into the 2009 pandemic “swine flu” virus and by various methods induced four mutations in it. The final bug was easily passed between ferrets, unlike viruses containing a “wild” bird flu hemagglutinin gene. But the engineered virus didn’t kill the animals and didn’t even make them as sick as the swine flu virus. The infections were also easily stopped with the drug Tamiflu.

Read Full Article →

Pandora’s Box on Deadly Flu Virus Can’t be Closed

Reuters
February 15, 2012

When 22 bird flu experts meet at the World Health Organization this week, they will be tasked with deciding just how far scientists should go in creating lethal mutant viruses in the name of research.

The hurriedly assembled meeting is designed to try to settle an unprecedented row over a call to ban publication of two scientific studies which detail how to mutate H5N1 bird flu viruses into a form that could cause a deadly human pandemic.

But experts say whatever the outcome, no amount of censorship, global regulation or shutting down of research projects could stop rogue scientists getting the tools to create and release a pandemic H5N1 virus if they were intent on evil.

“It doesn’t matter how much you restrict scientists from doing good, bad people can still do bad things,” said Wendy Barclay, an expert in flu virology at Imperial College London.

The WHO called the meeting, for February 16 and 17 in Geneva, to work out how to break a deadlock between scientists who have studied the mutations needed to make H5N1 transmit between mammals and U.S. biosecurity chiefs who want their work censored or “redacted” before it goes into scientific journals.

Since the two research teams, one in the Netherlands and one in the United States, have found that just a small number of mutations would allow H5N1 to spread like ordinary flu between mammals – and remain just as deadly as it is now – the meeting is likely to be tense and highly secretive. WHO officials repeatedly stress it will be a “closed door” event.

DEEP CONCERN

The United Nations health body has said it is “deeply concerned about the potential negative consequences” of work by the two leading flu research teams who in December said they had found ways to make H5N1 into a easily transmissible form capable of causing lethal human pandemics.

Flu researchers from around the world – more than 30 teams in all – declared a 60-day moratorium starting on January 20 on “any research involving highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 viruses” that produce easily contagious forms of the virus.

The WHO has invited 22 people to this week’s meeting, including the researchers who carried out the work, editors of the two journals, Science and Nature, who were asked to hold publication, and representatives from the U.S. National Science Advisory Board for Biosecurity (NSABB) which asked for the papers to be censored.

Keiji Fukuda, the WHO’s assistant director-general for health security and environment, who will chair the meeting, says he would like to secure agreement on whether the studies should be published, in full or part, and who should have access to them.

The scientific know-how is seen as vital for scientists to be able to develop vaccines, diagnostic tests and anti-viral drugs that could be deployed in the event of an H5N1 pandemic.

“It is important that research on these viruses should continue,” Fukuda told Reuters. “They do pose a risk. There’s a lot of things we don’t know about them. The question is not really should we continue to do research … but under what conditions can we do it so we don’t unnecessarily create fears and risks.”

Michael Osterholm, policy director at the Minnesota Center of Excellence for Influenza Research and Surveillance and an NSABB member, has limited hope for what one meeting can achieve.

“Nothing will be solved in one meeting,” he said. “This is a complicated issue that requires a great deal of international input. It is not a simple yes or no … We have no margin for error here.”

The H5N1 virus, first detected in Hong Kong in 1997, remains entrenched among poultry in many countries, mainly in Asia, but so far remains hard for humans to catch. It is known to have infected nearly 700 people worldwide since 2003, killing half of them, a far higher fatality rate than the new H1N1 flu virus, which originated in swine and caused a human influenza pandemic in 2009/2010.

Ron Fouchier, the scientist leading the Dutch team that gave H5N1 various genetic mutations and made it transmissible in mammals, argues the research must be published to help public health officials better prepare for a scenario where the virus could mutate and become more deadly, spreading from person to person via coughs and sneezes.

He has also said other research teams around the world are close to the same findings, some of them inadvertently, and should be warned in advance how the virus could become airborne.

In the short term, most scientists agree the moratorium is “a good gesture,” as flu expert and former WHO health security adviser David Heymann describes it, one that offers the research community space to think.

SUPER STRAINS

But can it, or should it, go on forever?

Heymann, Barclay and many other scientists argue that stopping this type of research into flu viruses and other potentially lethal pathogens would set a dangerous precedent.

Although adding and deleting genes can create super-strains that put the entire world at risk, Heymann said, such work is also vital to developing tools such as effective vaccines and diagnostic tests which are needed quickly if a pandemic hits.

Preventing this research would also prevent legitimate and well-intentioned researchers from using all possible scientific options to prepare for naturally occurring, or deliberately caused, outbreaks.

John Edmunds, who heads the department of infectious disease epidemiology at the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, describes studies on genetic mutations of H5N1 as “very, very important work” that should not be stopped.

“This flu strain has the potential to cause such enormous damage, and it’s important to know how far away we are from a horrible event like that,” he said. “It appears we’re not that far off it. That doesn’t mean it’s inevitably going to happen, but it makes it more important that we’re vigilant.”

Heymann, who now leads the Centre on Global Health Security at the Chatham House think-tank in London, says the best possible outcome would be a globally agreed “best practices framework on how you conduct this research and how you provide the information to others.”

“It’s also crucial to get understanding that even if you don’t provide this research information, there are ways that rogue scientists can get it if they want to,” he said.

Just Another Vaccine Hoax?

by Luis R. Miranda
The Real Agenda
January 14, 2012

I don’t know you, but I have seen enough vaccine hoaxes in the last few years. However, for the medical and pharmaceutical establishment there aren’t seem to be enough of them. Swine flu, Bird Flu, Polio, AIDS (Watch “House of Numbers:  Anatomy of an Epidemic”)… take your pick. For example, Dr. Jonas Salk creator of the polio vaccine, says that analysis indicates that the live virus vaccine in use since the 1960’s is the principle, if not sole cause of all polio cases since 1961.”Polio was pretty obscure before the twentieth century. There’d been some outbreaks in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, and most victims had been under the age of four”.

Because all those hoaxes collapsed by themselves, now there is a grand new hoax: The Universal Flu Shot is just around the corner. After poisoning most of the public’s brainwashed minds about a contagion and how only the government is capable of producing a solution to such an epidemic, it was more than expected, if you follow the modus operandi, to see the first coming of the miraculous universal flu shot.

But there is something that the fringe scientists who produce the vaccines in Big Pharma labs do not change. They continue to use fear and convenience as the two most powerful reasons for all of us to take the shot. Do you remember I AM LEGEND? Did you watch CONTAGION? Where are the ‘scientists’ when you most need them? They are right there, ready to sell you their next big thing, and it just happens this time it is a shot that cures it all.

“Annual flu shots might soon become a thing of the past, and threats such as avian and swine flu might disappear with them as a vaccine touted as the “holy grail” of flu treatment could be ready for human trials next year,” prays and info ad on the U.S. News and World Report. The positivism of the article is laughable is one understands that no vaccine has ever treated or cured a disease. At least none of the independently conducted and published trials have shown anything that indicated that a vaccine was responsible for curing a disease or stopping a pandemic.

Scientists go back to the Mumps and Polio vaccines to try to prove that vaccines work and state that an early vaccination with a universal shot is the solution to deadly strains of the flu, including the swine and possibly the bird flu. But why if such a vaccine is THE SOLUTION would people need boosters later? That is because vaccines don’t work. Viruses such as the flu mutate constantly, which is why the seasonal flu vaccine is such a useless mode of combating it. But taking extra boosters will not improve this situation either, because those boosters will also get outdated. See the hoax?

The only way a flu shot or a vaccine would work is if scientists could develop a way to foresee all the possible mutations a virus, for example, could take throughout its life, so they can come up with a shot that kills all possible strains. That of course is impossible because the evolution of a determined virus is unknown. It could take many ways. SO the idea of a Universal Flu Shot is just ‘kooky’.

Another interesting development on the vaccine front is why if the existing viruses and other disease are so dangerous, are scientists at universities and Big Pharma labs developing even more deadly pathogens? That’s right. In case you were under a rock through the holidays, some ‘scientists’ decided to create the deadliest of all flu viruses -that we know of- in two labs in Europe and the United States. They thought it would be a great idea to affect the virus in order to study it, even though the result would be a human race-ending pathogen that if released anywhere would kill as much as 90 percent of the population.

On November 28, scientists at the Erasmus Medical Centre in the Netherlands announced they had been successful in the production of a genetically modified version of the H5N1 Flu virus. Their achievement however, could have negative consequences, as published research showed that the man-made flu virus could potentially wipe out humans if it were to fall in the hands of a terrorist group, whose members could release it into the air. The deadly genetically modified strain of the bird flu virus was tweaked in a lab and turned into a far more infectious type that had the capacity to spread so rapidly, that it cause a global pandemic that would kill millions of people at a time.

The research, as the Daily Mail reported, caused a storm of controversy among scientists, many of which warned that the experiment that resulted in the creation of the new strain should have never been carried out. As it happens often, the medical establishment works through compartmentalization, so the left hand does not know what the right is doing. This is what head scientist at Erasmus Medical Center wanted the public to believe when he said that the experiments were part of a drive to learn more and better how the H5N1 virus works. Virologist Ron Fouchier said that experiments revealed that just five induced mutations were sufficient to enable the virus to spread more quickly.

“It’s like putting up a tent over your immune system that protects against rapidly mutating viruses,” says Joseph Kim, one of the fringe scientists working on the miraculous vaccine. And this fantastic shot has come even earlier than predicted by the U.S. National Institutes of Health. Isn’t that remarkable? Besides Kim’s Inovio Pharmaceuticals, at least two other companies are also working on the Universal Flu Shot. In late 2010, Inovio earned a $3.1 million grant from the National Institutes of Health to work on the vaccine, reports U.S. News&World Report.

According to Mr. Kim his company already completed successful human tests for vaccines that protect against all H1N1 and H5N1 flu strains. Wow, aren’t those the two latest strains of flu that supposedly threatened to cause a global pandemic? Again, isn’t that amazing. Can you hear those bank accounts cashing in already? I certainly can.

Inovio says it is working on vaccines that will protect people from strains such as H3N2, which has been detected on new swine flu viruses. Those, according to the company, will be mercifully combined in a powerful cocktail that should result on the all mighty Universal Flu Shot.

Please stay tuned.