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United States backed Genocides: From Guatemala to Congo

By GLEN FORD | BLACK AGENDA REPORT | MARCH 28, 2013

Guatemala has put its U.S.-backed genocidal maniac on trial, but Washington continues to protect its agents of mass murder in the Democratic Republic of Congo. “There is no auditorium big enough to hold the all the living Americans who should justly be charged with genocide, war crimes, and crimes against humanity.”

The man who unleashed a genocide against the Maya Indians of Guatemala, former dictator and general Efrain Rios Montt, went on trial for his crimes against humanity in Guatemala City, this week. By all rights, the 86 year-old Montt should be joined in the dock by scores of still-living United States officials, including former President George Bush the First.

“The genocide would have been impossible without the United States.”

Back in 1954, the CIA overthrew the reformist government of President Jacobo Arbenz, whose land reform measures had angered the United Fruit Company. The U.S. termination with extreme prejudice of Guatemalan democracy ultimately led to a 36-year rebellion and civil war, with the Americans backing a succession of dictators.

General Montt was the most monstrous. In the 1980s, his regime declared total war on the Mayan people of the country’s highlands. Whole villages were massacred and entire regions laid waste as the military attempted to drain the human sea in which the guerilla movement swam. Army documents show clearly that the native Maya were targeted for extermination because of their ethnicity; that all Maya – a majority of Guatemala’s population – were considered enemies of the state. Rios Montt is the first Latin American former head of state to be charged with genocide in his own country.

However, this crime is not Rios Montt’s, alone. The genocide would have been impossible without the United States, which had run the show in Guatemala since 1954 and had armed the general to the teeth. The U.S. corporate media like to call President Ronald Reagan the “Great Communicator” but, in Guatemala, he was the Great Exterminator, encouraging and financing General Rios Montt’s orgy of mass murder.

Reagan described the racist butcher as “a man of great personal integrity and commitment” who was “getting a bum rap.” All told, a quarter million or more Guatemalans died in the 40 years since the CIA robbed them of their democracy and independence.

“The Maya were targeted for extermination because of their ethnicity.”

In 1999, when the civil war was over, President Bill Clinton apologized for the harm done to Guatemala by the United States. But by then, Clinton had already set in motion a far larger genocide in the Democratic Republic of Congo – a U.S.-sponsored holocaust that has so far claimed 6 million lives.

In a just world, Slick Willie would join an auditorium full of Obama, Bush and Clinton administration operatives who, over the space of 16 years, made eastern Congo the charnel house of the planet. Susan Rice would have a place of prominence in this vast assemblage of criminals, as among the most culpable for the worst bloodbath since World War Two.

In fact, there is no auditorium big enough to hold the all the living Americans who should justly be charged with genocide, war crimes, and crimes against humanity. There are too many – great crowds of them from each administration, especially in the last ten years, since the invasion of Iraq. Imperialism in its last stages maintains an ever-lengthening Kill List.

Guatemala is coming to grips with its past, in a trial that will probably last a few months. The United States has an infinity of crimes to answer for.

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D.E.A Commandos Attack Cartels that Cut Into Its Profits

Charlie Savage
New York Times
October 8, 2011

Late on a moonless night last March, a plane smuggling nearly half a ton of cocaine touched down at a remote airstrip in Honduras. A heavily armed ground crew was waiting for it — as were Honduran security forces. After a 20-minute firefight, a Honduran officer was wounded and two drug traffickers lay dead.

Several news outlets briefly reported the episode, mentioning that a Honduran official said the United States Drug Enforcement Administration had provided support. But none of the reports included a striking detail: that support consisted of an elite detachment of military-trained D.E.A. special agents who joined in the shootout, according to a person familiar with the episode.

The D.E.A. now has five commando-style squads it has been quietly deploying for the past several years to Western Hemisphere nations — including Haiti, Honduras, the Dominican Republic, Guatemala and Belize — that are battling drug cartels, according to documents and interviews with law enforcement officials.

The program — called FAST, for Foreign-deployed Advisory Support Team — was created during the George W. Bush administration to investigate Taliban-linked drug traffickers in Afghanistan. Beginning in 2008 and continuing under President Obama, it has expanded far beyond the war zone.

“You have got to have special skills and equipment to be able to operate effectively and safely in environments like this,” said Michael A. Braun, a former head of operations for the drug agency who helped design the program. “The D.E.A. is working shoulder-to-shoulder in harm’s way with host-nation counterparts.”

The evolution of the program into a global enforcement arm reflects the United States’ growing reach in combating drug cartels and how policy makers increasingly are blurring the line between law enforcement and military activities, fusing elements of the “war on drugs” with the “war on terrorism.”

Bruce Bagley, a University of Miami professor who specializes in Latin America and counternarcotics, said the commando program carries potential benefits: the American teams could help arrest kingpins, seize stockpiles, disrupt smuggling routes and professionalize security forces in small countries through which traffickers pass drugs headed to the United States.

But there are also potential dangers.

“It could lead to a nationalist backlash in the countries involved,” he said. “If an American is killed, the administration and the D.E.A. could get mired in Congressional oversight hearings. Taking out kingpins could fragment the organization and lead to more violence. And it won’t permanently stop trafficking unless a country also has capable institutions, which often don’t exist in Central America.”

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Experimentos Médicos de E.E.U.U. en Guatemala son solo una Muestra

Los experimentos médicos con enfermedades venéreas fueron sólo un crimen en una larga historia de colusión médica y el gobierno para utilizar a los seres humanos como conejillos de indias.

Ha sido ampliamente revelado que Estados Unidos llevó a cabo experimentos médicos con prisioneros y pacientes mentales en Guatemala en la década de 1940. Estos se llevaron a cabo por un médico del gobierno, que trabaja en un hospital psiquiátrico, y permitieron la infección deliberada de guatemaltecos con sífilis (y otras enfermedades) sin su conocimiento con el fin de determinar la eficacia de la penicilina. Los experimentos fueron patrocinadas en parte por el Instituto Nacional de Salud de EE.UU. (NIH), y han sido ampliamente difundidos por la cadena ABC News, el Washington Post y muchos otros medios de comunicación (que de repente han tomado un interés en un tema).

La indignación en contra de este experimento de ciencia médica inhumana se refleja en los titulares noticiosos de medios tradicionales en todo el mundo, y el gobierno guatemalteco ya caracteriza a este triste capítulo en la historia de EE.UU. como un “crimen contra la humanidad.”

Pero lo que está a punto de leer aquí es aún peor.

Los experimentos médicos de EE.UU. a los ciudadanos guatemaltecos, apenas arañan la superficie de los experimentos criminales que el gobierno de EE.UU. y la industria médica han llevado a cabo en víctimas inocentes en el último siglo.

Los EE.UU. pretende estar sorprendidos

El descubrimiento de este experimento médico generó una serie de respuestas oficiales de EE.UU. que sólo se pueden llamar “teatro político” teniendo en cuenta cómo acontecieron. La secretaria de Estado Hillary Rodham Clinton dijo: “A pesar de que estos hechos ocurrieron hace más de 64 años, estamos indignados de que esta actividad pueda haber ocurrido con el pretexto de ayudar a la salud pública … Lamentamos profundamente que haya sucedido, y le pedimos disculpas a todas las personas que se vieron afectadas por esas prácticas odiosas. ”

El portavoz de la Casa Blanca, Robert Gibbs, dijo que el descubrimiento es “reprensible”, y el presidente Obama incluso levantó el teléfono para llamar al presidente de Guatemala, Álvaro Colom y ofrecer una disculpa verbal.

¿Sabes lo que todas estas acciones tienen en común? Un mensaje implícito de que este experimento de la década de 1940 era de alguna manera un error aberrante que nunca sucede en los Estados Unidos. Ellos quieren que usted crea este es sólo un investigador solitario que cometió un crimen atroz en nombre de la medicina. Pero la realidad es que las grandes farmacéuticas y el gobierno de EE.UU. utilizan a personas inocentes en experimentos médicos todos los días. Este no era un caso raro. Fue un reflejo de la forma en que el gobierno de EE.UU. siempre ha conspirado con la industria médica para probar las drogas en víctimas inocentes y descubrir lo que sucede.

El gobierno de los EE.UU. y las grandes empresas farmacéuticas siguen cometiendo crímenes contra la humanidad. Este patrón se extiende hasta la actualidad, por supuesto. Recuerda los veteranos la Guerra del Golfo que fueron diagnosticados con el Síndrome de la Guerra del Golfo poco después de regresar de servir en Irak? La opinión generalizada es que este síndrome es el efecto secundario de las vacunas experimentales y las drogas impuestas a estos soldados por el gobierno de los EE.UU.. En la línea de tiempo de los experimentos médicos que se muestra a continuación, se dará cuenta de un patrón preocupante de la explotación que los gobiernos y sus alas militares siguen en sus experimentos.

Más recientemente, la vacuna del año pasado contra la gripe H1N1 es esencialmente un gran experimento médico que involucra a cientos de millones de personas en todo el mundo. La vacuna fue aprobada aunque nunca había sido probada científicamente.  Sin embargo, fue promovida de manera agresiva por las autoridades gubernamentales con la esperanza de que la gente la tomara para poder descubrir lo que sucedería. (Es muy parecido a Nancy Pelosi, tratando de pasar el proyecto de reforma de salud para que todos podamos saber lo que está en este …)

La cronología de los experimentos médicos sobre las víctimas inocentes

Lo que es realmente interesante de esta historia es cómo el descubrimiento de este experimento médico de 1940 salió a la luz. Fue “descubierto” por Susan M. Reverby, profesora en el Wellesley College en Massachusetts, quien dijo: “Casi me caí de la silla cuando empecé a leer esto … ¿Te imaginas? Yo no lo podía creer. “(http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dy …)

Hemos estado publicando la verdad sobre los experimentos médicos en seres humanos inocentes por años. Si Susan Reverby supiera acerca de cómo la industria médica realmente funciona, no se habría sorprendido en absoluto. La historia de los experimentos médicos realizados en el nombre de la industria farmacéutica siempre ha usado a presos, negros, mujeres y otros grupos explotados como ratas de laboratorio humanos (véase más abajo el enlace de la línea de tiempo para leer por sí mismo).

Al descubrir este experimento médico, Susan Reverby estaba tan indignada que salió publicar sus sus hallazgos. ABC News publicó la historia y luego se extendió como pólvora a través de los medios de comunicación. Eso es lo curioso de esto: Los medios de comunicación tan raramente publican la verdad sobre la historia de la medicina que cuando aparece algo verdadero, es “sorprendente”.

Pero descubrir personas víctimas de abuso médico a través del gobierno es  rutina. Los abusos de la vida humana cometidos por la industria farmacéutica van más allá de 1500 guatemaltecos y, de hecho se extiende a decenas de millones de estadounidenses que están siendo tratados como conejillos de Indias todos los días.

Psiquiatría – La Industria de la Muerte

Si realmente quieres estar asustados por la verdadera historia, documentada de cómo las personas han sido torturadas, maltratadas, inyectadas, mutiladas y como sus vidas fueron destruidas por la industria médica, echa un vistazo Museo Psiquiatría en la Industria de la Muerte creado por el CCHR.

Vea el vídeo aquí: http://www.cchr.org/museum.html # / …

Usted puede caminar a través de este mismo museo. Es en Los Ángeles, y es una de las cosas más inquietantes que veremos en la historia de la medicina. Los experimentos de enfermedades de transmisión sexual en Guatemala, por cierto, se llevaron a cabo en un hospital psiquiátrico. (No es de extrañar.) Caminé a través de este museo y prácticamente me encontré en lágrimas antes de que terminara. Lo que los psiquiatras y los médicos hacen a otros seres humanos en nombre de la “medicina” le impactará hasta la médula.

La industria de la psiquiatría ha hecho cosas indecibles a mujeres, niños, presos, ancianos, afroamericanos y las minorías raciales – todo en nombre de la “ciencia” y “medicina”. De hecho, estos experimentos continúan hasta este día en la forma de drogar a niños que son diagnosticados con enfermedades ficticias, como “ADHD” o Transtorno de Deficit de Atención.

Nadie ha documentado la historia real de abuso criminal de la medicina en los seres humanos, como la CCDH – Comisión Ciudadana de Derechos Humanos. Echa un vistazo a sus impresionantes sobre temas tales como la comercialización de la Locura (http://www.cchr.org/videos/marketin …) y hacer millones de estas prácticas (http://www.cchr.org/videos/ la toma de una …).

Aquí, usted comenzará a arañar la superficie de la verdadera historia de abuso criminal de la industria farmacéutica – a menudo en connivencia con el gobierno. Normalmente, estas historias son todas escondidas y nunca oímos hablar de ellas. Después de todo, para descubrir que el gobierno de los EE.UU. conspiró con la industria farmacéutica para infectar a los guatemaltecos con una enfermedad de transmisión sexual no refleja con exactitud el tipo de imagen que Obama desea que la gente crea sobre los Estados Unidos.

Experimentos médicos en seres humanos en una línea del tiempo

A continuación, he reproducido una cronología de los experimentos médicos con humanos. Esto es sólo una lista parcial, por cierto: hay más experimentos que se llevaron a cabo en secreto y nunca fueron documentados.

Como podrá ver aquí, el experimento de los guatemaltecos apenas comienza a pintar el cuadro completo de cuántos seres humanos han sido asesinados, envenenados, mutilados o tuvieron sus vidas destruidas por criminales en experimentos médicos realizados en el nombre de “medicina y la ciencia. ”

Muchos de estos experimentos incluyen la participación de organizaciones cuyos nombres usted reconocería inmediatamente: Merck, el Instituto Rockefeller para la Investigación Médica, el Instituto Sloan-Kettering, los Institutos Nacionales de Salud, Hospital General de Massachusetts y muchos más. Esto es como un Quién es Quién de la industria farmacéutica, y quienes estuvieron involucrados en el uso de seres humanos como conejillos de indias para llevar a cabo experimentos médicos.

Y como se verá más adelante, la experiencia de Guatemala no es ni siquiera el más grotesco o perturbador.

Nota: A continuación se muestra una lista parcial de los experimentos médicos con humanos que hemos documentado aquí. Vea la lista completa aquí: http://www.naturalnews.com/022383_r …

(1845 – 1849)

J. Marion Sims, más tarde aclamado como el “padre de la ginecología,” lleva a cabo experimentos médicos en mujeres africanas esclavizadas sin anestesia. Estas mujeres suelen morir de la infección poco después de la cirugía. Basado en su creencia de que el movimiento de los huesos del cráneo de los recién nacidos durante el parto prolongado causa trismo, el usó una lezna de zapatero, un instrumento puntiagudo para hacer agujeros en el cuero, para hacer agujeros en el del cráneo de los bebés nacidos de madres esclavizados (Brinker).

(1895)

Nueva York.  El pediatra Henry Heiman infecta a un niño de 4 años de edad, a quien llama “un idiota con epilepsia crónica” con gonorrea, como parte de un experimento médico (“Experimentación Humana: Antes y Después de la era Nazi“).

(1896)

El Dr. Arthur Wentworth usa 29 niños en el Children’s Hospital de Boston como conejillos de Indias humanos al realizar punción lumbar en ellos, sólo para probar si el procedimiento es perjudicial (Sharav).

(1906)

El profesor de Harvard y Dr. Richard Strong infecta presos en las Filipinas con el cólera para estudiar la enfermedad, 13 de ellos mueren. Se compensa a los sobrevivientes con cigarrillos. Durante los Juicios de Nuremberg, médicos nazis citaron este estudio para justificar sus propios experimentos médicos (Greger, Sharav).

(1911)

Dr. Hideyo Noguchi, del Instituto Rockefeller para la Investigación Médica publica datos sobre la inyección de sífilis en la piel de 146 pacientes niños del hospital, en un intento por desarrollar una prueba cutánea para detectar la sífilis. Más tarde, en 1913, varios de los padres de estos niños demandaron al Dr. Noguchi por supuestamente infectar a sus hijos con sífilis (“Reseñas y Notas: Historia de la Medicina: Sometido a la ciencia: la experimentación humana en América antes de la Segunda Guerra Mundial“).

(1913)

Médicos experimentadores “prueban” a 15 niños en el hogar infantil San Vicente de la Casa de Filadelfia con la tuberculina, lo que resulta en ceguera permanente en algunos de los niños. Aunque la Cámara de Representantes de Pennsylvania registra el incidente, los investigadores no son castigados por los experimentos (“Experimentación Humana: Antes y Después de la era Nazi“).

(1915)

El Dr. Joseph Goldberger, en virtud de una orden de la Oficina de Salud Pública de los EE.UU. produce pelagra, una enfermedad debilitante que afecta al sistema nervioso central, y la usa en 12 reclusos en Mississippi para tratar de encontrar una cura para la enfermedad. Un sujeto de prueba más adelante dice que había sido como pasar por “mil infiernos.” En 1935, después de que millones mueren a causa de la enfermedad, el director de la oficina finalmente admite que los funcionarios sabían que era causada por una deficiencia de niacina, pero no hizo nada al respecto porque en su mayoría los afectados eran pobres afro-americanos. Durante los Juicios de Nuremberg, médicos nazis utilizaron este estudio para tratar de justificar sus experimentos médicos con prisioneros de los campos de concentración (Greger;. Cockburn y St. Clair, eds).

(1932)

(1932-1972) El Servicio de Salud Pública en Tuskegee, Alabama diagnosticó a 400 negros pobres con la sífilis, pero nunca les dice que es esta enfermedad, ni los trata, sino que los investigadores utilizan a los hombres como conejillos de indias humanos para seguir los síntomas y la progresión de la enfermedad. Todos ellos finalmente mueren a causa de la sífilis y nunca se les dice a sus familias que podrían haber sido tratados (Goliszek de la Universidad de Virginia Sistema de Salud Biblioteca de Ciencias de la Salud).

(1939)

Para probar su teoría sobre las raíces de la tartamudez, el destacado patólogo Dr. Wendell Johnson realiza su famoso “Experimento monstruo” en 22 niños del Hogar de Huerfanos de Iowa, en Davenport. El Dr. Johnson y sus estudiantes graduados ponen a los niños bajo presión psicológica intensa, haciendo que cambien de habla normal a la tartamudez. En ese momento, algunos de los estudiantes según los informes advierten al doctor Johnson que “a raíz de la Segunda Guerra Mundial, observadores pueden hacer comparaciones con los experimentos nazis con seres humanos, lo que podría destruir su carrera” (Alianza para la Protección e Investigación en Seres Humanos).

(1941)

El Dr. William C. Negro infecta a un bebé de 12 meses de edad con herpes, como parte de un experimento médico. En ese momento, el editor de la revista Journal of Experimental Medicine, Francis Peyton Rous, lo llama “un abuso de poder, una violación de los derechos de un individuo, y no excusable, porque la enfermedad que siguió tuvo implicaciones para la ciencia” (Sharav) .

Un artículo en una edición de 1941 de Archives of Pediatrics describe los estudios médicos de la enfermedad grave de las encías Angina de Vincent en el que los médicos transmiten la enfermedad de los niños enfermos a los niños sanos con hisopos orales (Goliszek).

Los investigadores dan a 800 mujeres embarazadas en situación de pobreza en la Universidad de Vanderbilt a clínicas prenatales “cócteles”, incluyendo el hierro radiactivo con el fin de determinar las necesidades de hierro de las mujeres embarazadas (Pacchioli).

(1942)

El Servicio de Guerra Química comienza el uso de gas mostaza y en experimentos sobre 4.000 miembros del ejército de EE.UU.. Algunos sujetos no se dan cuenta y se ofrecen como voluntarios para experimentos de exposición a sustancias químicas. Uno de los voluntarios, Nathan Schnurman, en 1944 piensa que sólo es voluntario para poner a prueba la nueva ropa de verano de la Marina de EE.UU. “(Goliszek).

El presidente de Merck Pharmaceuticals, George Merck es nombrado director del Servicio de Investigación de Guerra (ERT), un organismo orientado a velar por el establecimiento de un programa de armas biológicas (Goliszek).

(1944 – 1946) Un capitán en el cuerpo médico envía un memorando al Coronel de Stanford Warren, jefe de médicos del Proyecto Manhattan, expresando su preocupación sobre el efecto en el sistema nervioso del componente floruro de la bomba atómica y pide que se hagan investigaciones con animales para determinar el alcance de estos efectos: “La evidencia clínica sugiere que el hexafluoruro de uranio puede tener un marcado efecto en el sistema nervioso central … Lo más probable es que el F [/ code] componente en lugar de la T [código 1 =” uranio “language =” para “] es el factor causal … Puesto que el trabajo con estos compuestos es esencial, será necesario saber de antemano cuáles son los efectos mentales que pueden producirse después de la exposición. “Al año siguiente, el Proyecto Manhattan comenzaría los estudios en humanos, basado en los efectos del fluoruro (Griffiths y Bryson).

El equipo de médicos del Proyecto Manhattan, dirigido por el ahora infame de la Universidad de Rochester radiólogo coronel Warren Safford, inyecta plutonio en los pacientes en el hospital de la Universidad, Strong Memorial (Burton).

(1945)

Continuando con el Proyecto Manhattan, los investigadores inyectan plutonio en tres pacientes en la Universidad de Billings de Chicago Hospital (Sharav).

El Departamento de Estado de E.E.U.U, la inteligencia del Ejército y la CIA comienzan la Operación Paperclip, que ofrece inmunidad a científicos nazis e identidades secretas a cambio de trabajo en proyectos gubernamentales secretos en la aerodinámica y la medicina de guerra química en los Estados Unidos (“Proyecto Paperclip“).

(1945 – 1955) En Newburgh, Nueva York, los investigadores vinculados al Proyecto Manhattan inician el estudio estadounidense más extenso jamás realizado sobre los efectos de la fluoración del agua potable pública (Griffiths y Bryson).

(1946)

Continuando con el estudio de Newburg de 1945, el Proyecto Manhattan comisiona a la Universidad de Rochester para estudiar los efectos del fluoruro sobre los animales y los seres humanos en un proyecto con nombre en código “Programa F” Con la ayuda del del Departamento de Salud del estado de Nueva York, los investigadores del Programa F recogen y analiza muestras de sangre y tejido de los residentes de Newburg. Los estudios son patrocinados por la Comisión de Energía Atómica y llevados a cabo en la Universidad de Rochester y el Hospital del Centro Médico Memorial (Griffiths y Bryson).

(1946 – 1947) Universidad de Rochester investigadores inyectan cuatro machos y dos sujetos de sexo femenino con el uranio 234 y uranio-235 en dosis que oscilan entre 6,4 a 70,7 microgramos por cada kilogramo de peso corporal para estudiar la cantidad de uranio que podría tolerar antes de que sus riñones se dañen (Goliszek).

Seis empleados de sexo masculino de un laboratorio de Chicago reciben agua contaminada con plutonio-239 para beber, para que los investigadores pueden aprender como el plutonio se absorbe en el tracto digestivo (Goliszek).

Los investigadores comienzan con pacientes en hospitales de veteranos de guerra a quienes usan como sujetos de prueba para experimentos médicos con humanos, hábilmente redactado como “investigaciones” u “observaciones” en los informes de estudios médicos para evitar connotaciones negativas y mala publicidad (Sharav).

El público estadounidense finalmente se entera de los experimentos de guerra biológica que se realizan en Fort Detrick en un informe publicado por el Departamento de Guerra (Goliszek).

(1947)

Coronel EE Kirkpatrick de los EE.UU. emite un documento secreto (707.075), de fecha 8 de enero. En este, escribe que “algunas sustancias radioactivas están siendo preparadas para administración intravenosa a seres humanos como parte del experimento” (Goliszek).

Un documento secreto del AEC del 17 de abril dice: “Se desea que ningún documento se publicará que se refiere a los experimentos con seres humanos que podría tener una reacción adversa en la opinión pública o dar lugar a demandas legales,” revelando que el gobierno de EE.UU. estaba al tanto de los riesgos a la salud de sus pruebas nucleares en el personal militar encargado de las pruebas o civiles cercanos (Goliszek).

La CIA empieza a estudiar el potencial del LSD como un arma utilizando sujetos en pruebas militares y civiles para los experimentos sin su consentimiento. Finalmente, estos estudios con LSD se convertirían en el programa MKULTRA en 1953 (Sharav).

(1947 – 1953) La Marina de EE.UU. comienza el proyecto Chatter para identificar y poner a prueba el llamado “suero de la verdad”, como los utilizados por la Unión Soviética para interrogar a los espías. Mescalina y la escopolamina, que deprimen el sistema nervioso central, son algunos de los muchos fármacos probados en seres humanos (Goliszek).

(1948)

Basándose en los estudios realizados en secreto en Newburgh, NY a partir de 1945, los investigadores del proyecto F publican un informe en la edición de agosto de 1948 de la Revista de la Asociación Dental Americana, detallando los peligros del fluoruro en la salud. La Comisión de Energía Atómica (CEA) de forma rápida censura el informe por asuntos de “seguridad nacional” (Griffiths y Bryson).

(1950)

(1950 – 1953) El Ejército de los EE.UU. lanza nubes químicas sobre más de seis ciudades estadounidenses y canadienses. Los residentes en Winnipeg, Canadá, donde se había lanzado cadmio altamente tóxico, posteriormente reporta una alta tasa de enfermedades respiratorias (Cockburn y St. Clair, eds.).

Con el fin de determinar la susceptibilidad de una ciudad estadounidense a un ataque biológico, la Marina de los EE.UU. lanza una nube de bacterias Bacillus globigii de los buques en la costa de San Francisco. De acuerdo a los dispositivos de vigilancia situados por toda la ciudad para probar la extensión de la infección, los ocho mil residentes de San Francisco inhalan cinco mil o más partículas de bacterias, muchos se enferman con síntomas parecidos a la neumonía (Goliszek).

El Dr. José Carreras de la Universidad de Pennsylvania infecta a 200 mujeres presas con hepatitis viral para estudiar la enfermedad (Sharav).

Los médicos del Hospital de la Ciudad de Cleveland estudian el flujo sanguíneo cerebral mediante la inyección en sujetos de prueba con la anestesia espinal, la inserción de agujas en las venas yugulares y la arteria braquial, causa la pérdida masiva de sangre, parálisis y desmayos. Con frecuencia realizan este experimento. (Goliszek).

Dr. D. Ewen Cameron, después de la infamia MKULTRA debido a sus experimentos en 1957 a 1964, publica un artículo en el British Journal de Medicina Física, en el que describe los experimentos que obligan a los pacientes con esquizofrenia en Brandon Manitoba Mental Hospital Mental a nadar desnudos bajo lámparas de entre 15 y 200 vatios por hasta ocho horas por día. Sus otros experimentos incluyen la colocación de los enfermos mentales en una caja eléctrica que se calienta en exceso y su temperatura corporal interna sube a 103 grados Fahrenheit, y la inducción de coma al dar a los pacientes inyecciones de insulina (Goliszek).

(1951)

El Ejército de los EE.UU. en secreto contamina los suministros del Centro Naval de Norfolk en Virginia y el aeropuerto de Washington, DC con una cepa de bacterias elegidas porque se pensaba que los afro-americanos eran más susceptibles que los caucásicos. El experimento causa la intoxicación alimentaria, problemas respiratorios y la intoxicación de la sangre (Cockburn y St. Clair, eds.).

(1951 – 1956) Bajo contrato con la Escuela de la Fuerza Aérea de Aviación y Medicina (SAM), la Universidad de Texas MD y el Anderson Cancer Center de Houston comienzan a estudiar los efectos de la radiación en los pacientes con cáncer – muchos de ellos miembros de grupos minoritarios o indigentes, de acuerdo a las fuentes – con el fin de determinar la capacidad de la radiación para tratar el cáncer y los posibles efectos de la radiación a largo plazo de los pilotos que vuelan aviones de propulsión nuclear. El estudio tiene una duración hasta 1956, involucrando a 263 pacientes con cáncer. A partir de 1953, los sujetos están obligados a firmar un documento de aceptación, pero todavía no cumple con las directrices de consentimiento informado establecido. Los estudios de TBI se continuaron en cuatro instituciones diferentes – la Universidad de Baylor College of Medicine, el Memorial Sloan-Kettering Institute for Cancer Research, el Hospital Naval de Bethesda de los EE.UU. y la Universidad de Cincinnati College of Medicine – hasta 1971 (EE.UU. Departamento de Energía , Goliszek).

Si esta lista le parece corta, recuerde que puede ver la lista completa en este link.  Cabe destacar que la mayoría de estos experimentos se realizaron en los Estados Unidos solamente, pero experimentos del mismo tipo se han realizado en decenas de países alrededor del mundo, y se continúan realizando hoy.  Muchos de estos experimentos cuentan con el consentimiento de los gobiernos locales.  Cuando escuche que el gobierno de Estados Unidos, a través de sus Fuerzas Navales o Militares, prestan ayuda humanitaria o de salud, sabrá de que tipo de ayuda se está hablando.  Si esta información le es útil, pasela a la mayor cantidad de  personas posible, especialmente si su país ha sido o es sujeto de “ayuda humanitaria”  o “asistencia médica” por parte de Estados Unidos.

U.S. Experiments on Guatemalans Were Only the Start

Guatemalan STD medical experiments were just one crime in a long history of medical-government collusion to use humans as guinea pigs

Natural News

It has now been widely revealed that the United States conducted medical experiments on prisoners and mental health patients in Guatemala in the 1940’s. Carried out by a government-employed doctor working in a psychiatric hospital, these experiments involved intentionally infecting Guatemalans with syphilis (and other STDs) without their knowledge in order to determine the effectiveness of penicillin. They were sponsored in part by the U.S. National Institutes of Health (NIH), and they’ve now been widely reported by ABC News, the Washington Post and many other mainstream papers (who have suddenly taken an interest in a subject they normally wouldn’t touch).

The outrage against this inhumane medical science experiment is reflected in mainstream news headlines across the globe, and the Guatemalan government now characterizes this sad chapter in U.S. history as a “crime against humanity.” News reporters are shocked in reporting the story, and U.S. government officials seem to be almost beside themselves in discovering that this ever took place in America.

But what you’re about to reveal here will shock you even more.

The U.S. medical experiments on Guatemalan citizens, you see, barely scratch the surface of the criminal experiments the U.S. government and the medical industry has carried out on innocent victims over the last century.

The U.S. pretends to be surprised

The discovery of this medical experiment generated a series of official U.S. responses that can only be called political theater given how contrived they are. Secretary of State Hillary Rodham Clinton went on the record saying, “Although these events occurred more than 64 years ago, we are outraged that such reprehensible research could have occurred under the guise of public health… We deeply regret that it happened, and we apologize to all the individuals who were affected by such abhorrent research practices.”

White House spokesman Robert Gibbs called the discovery “reprehensible,” and President Obama even picked up the phone to call Guatemalan President Alvaro Colom and offer a verbal apology.

You know what all these actions have in common? An implied message that this experiment from the 1940’s was somehow an aberrant mistake that never happens in America. They want you to believe this is just some lone researcher who went off his rocker and committed some atrocious crime in the name of medicine. But the reality is that Big Pharma and the U.S. government use innocent people in medical experiments every single day. This wasn’t some bizarre, rare event. It was a reflection of the way the U.S. government has consistently conspired with the medical industry to test drugs on innocent victims and find out what happens.

U.S. government and Big Pharma continue to commit crimes against humanity

This pattern extends to the modern day, of course. Remember the Gulf War veterans who were diagnosed with Gulf War Syndrome shortly after returning from serving in Iraq? It is widely believed that this syndrome is the side effect of experimental vaccines and drugs forced upon these soldiers by the U.S. government. In the timeline of medical experiments shown below, you’ll notice a disturbing pattern of governments exploiting soldiers for their experiments.

More recently, last year’s swine flu vaccine was essentially one grand medical experiment involving hundreds of millions of people around the world. The vaccine was entirely untested and had never been scientifically tested and then approved as safe by any health authority, yet it was aggressively pushed by government authorities in the hopes that people would take the shots so they could find out what happens. (It’s a lot like Nancy Pelosi trying to pass the health care reform bill so that we can all find out what’s in it…)

The timeline of medical experiments on innocent victims

What’s really interesting about this story is how the discovery of this 1940’s medical experiment suddenly came to light. It was “discovered” by Susan M. Reverby, a professor at Wellesley College in Massachusetts, who said, “I almost fell out of my chair when I started reading this… Can you imagine? I couldn’t believe it.” (http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dy…)

Well maybe she should have been reading NaturalNews. We’ve been publishing the truth about medical experimentation on innocent humans for years. If Susan Reverby knew anything about how the medical industry really operates, she wouldn’t have been surprised at all. The history of medical experiments conducted in the name of the pharmaceutical industry is chock full of accounts of prisoners, blacks, women and other groups being exploited as human lab rats (see the timeline link below to read it for yourself).

Upon discovering this medical experiment, Susan Reverby was so outraged that she went public with her findings. ABC News picked up on the story and then it spread like wildfire throughout the mainstream media. That’s the curious thing about this: The mainstream media so rarely prints the truth about the history of medicine that when something truthful appears, it’s “amazing” news.

But here on NaturalNews.com, we print these kind of stories every single day. To discover that yet another group of victims was abused and exploited by a government-paid doctor working for the drug industry is routine. The abuses of human life committed by the pharmaceutical industry goes far beyond 1500 Guatemalans and actually extends to tens of millions of Americans who are being treated like guinea pigs every single day.

Psychiatry – An Industry of Death

If you really want to be freaked out by the true, documented history of how people have been tortured, abused, injected, maimed and otherwise had their lives destroyed by the medical industry, check out the Psychiatry An Industry of Death Museum created by CCHR (www.CCHR.org).

Watch the video here: http://www.cchr.org/museum.html%23/…

You can actually walk through this museum yourself. It’s in Los Angeles, and it’s one of the most disturbing things you’ll ever see about the true history of medicine. The STD experiments in Guatemala, by the way, were carried out in a psychiatric hospital. (No surprise.) I walked through this museum and practically found myself in tears before it was over. The things that psychiatrists and doctors will do to other human beings in the name of “medicine” will rock you to the core.

The psychiatric industry has done unspeakable things to women, children, prisoners, senior citizens, African Americans and racial minorities — all in the name of “science” and “medicine.” In fact, these experiments continue to this day in the form of the psychiatric drugging of children who are diagnosed with fictitious health conditions such as “ADHD.” See my disease mongering engine to invent your own psychiatric disorders, if you want a bit of satire on this subject: http://www.naturalnews.com/disease-…

Nobody has documented the real history of medicine’s criminal abuse of human beings as well as CCHR – the Citizens’ Commission on Human Rights. Check out their amazing, shocking and eye-opening videos such as The Marketing of Madness (http://www.cchr.org/videos/marketin…) and Making A Killing (http://www.cchr.org/videos/making-a…).

Here, you’ll begin to scratch the surface of the true story of criminal abuse by the pharmaceutical industry — often in collusion with government. Normally, these stories are all covered up and we never hear about them. After all, to discover that the U.S. government conspired with the pharmaceutical industry to infect Guatemalans with a sexually-transmitted disease doesn’t exactly reflect the kind of image Obama wishes for people to believe about America.

A timeline of medical experiments on humans

Below, I’ve reprinted a timeline of human medical experiments that we first put together here on NaturalNews several years ago. This is just a partial list, by the way: There are more experiments that were conducted in secret and were never documented.

As you’ll see here, the experiment on Guatemalans just barely begins to paint the full picture of just how many human beings have been killed, poisoned, maimed or otherwise had their lives destroyed by criminal medical experiments carried out in the name of “medical science.”

Many of these experiments involve organizations whose names you would instantly recognize: Merck, the Rockefeller Institute for Medical Research, the Sloan-Kettering Institute, the National Institutes of Health, Massachusetts General Hospital and many more. This is like a Who’s Who of the pharmaceutical industry, and they were all involved in using human beings as guinea pigs to conduct medical experiments.

And as you’ll see below, the Guatemalan experiment isn’t even the most grotesque or disturbing.

Note: Below is only a partial list of human medical experiments we’ve documented here on NaturalNews. See the full list here: http://www.naturalnews.com/022383_r…

(1845 – 1849)

J. Marion Sims, later hailed as the “father of gynecology,” performs medical experiments on enslaved African women without anesthesia. These women would usually die of infection soon after surgery. Based on his belief that the movement of newborns’ skull bones during protracted births causes trismus, he also uses a shoemaker’s awl, a pointed tool shoemakers use to make holes in leather, to practice moving the skull bones of babies born to enslaved mothers (Brinker).

(1895)

New York pediatrician Henry Heiman infects a 4-year-old boy whom he calls “an idiot with chronic epilepsy” with gonorrhea as part of a medical experiment (“Human Experimentation: Before the Nazi Era and After”).

(1896)

Dr. Arthur Wentworth turns 29 children at Boston’s Children’s Hospital into human guinea pigs when he performs spinal taps on them, just to test whether the procedure is harmful (Sharav).

(1906)

Harvard professor Dr. Richard Strong infects prisoners in the Philippines with cholera to study the disease; 13 of them die. He compensates survivors with cigars and cigarettes. During the Nuremberg Trials, Nazi doctors cite this study to justify their own medical experiments (Greger, Sharav).

(1911)

Dr. Hideyo Noguchi of the Rockefeller Institute for Medical Research publishes data on injecting an inactive syphilis preparation into the skin of 146 hospital patients and normal children in an attempt to develop a skin test for syphilis. Later, in 1913, several of these children’s parents sue Dr. Noguchi for allegedly infecting their children with syphilis (“Reviews and Notes: History of Medicine: Subjected to Science: Human Experimentation in America before the Second World War”).

(1913)

Medical experimenters “test” 15 children at the children’s home St. Vincent’s House in Philadelphia with tuberculin, resulting in permanent blindness in some of the children. Though the Pennsylvania House of Representatives records the incident, the researchers are not punished for the experiments (“Human Experimentation: Before the Nazi Era and After”).

(1915)

Dr. Joseph Goldberger, under order of the U.S. Public Health Office, produces Pellagra, a debilitating disease that affects the central nervous system, in 12 Mississippi inmates to try to find a cure for the disease. One test subject later says that he had been through “a thousand hells.” In 1935, after millions die from the disease, the director of the U.S Public Health Office would finally admit that officials had known that it was caused by a niacin deficiency for some time, but did nothing about it because it mostly affected poor African-Americans. During the Nuremberg Trials, Nazi doctors used this study to try to justify their medical experiments on concentration camp inmates (Greger; Cockburn and St. Clair, eds.).

(1932)

(1932-1972) The U.S. Public Health Service in Tuskegee, Ala. diagnoses 400 poor, black sharecroppers with syphilis but never tells them of their illness nor treats them; instead researchers use the men as human guinea pigs to follow the symptoms and progression of the disease. They all eventually die from syphilis and their families are never told that they could have been treated (Goliszek, University of Virginia Health System Health Sciences Library).

(1939)

In order to test his theory on the roots of stuttering, prominent speech pathologist Dr. Wendell Johnson performs his famous “Monster Experiment” on 22 children at the Iowa Soldiers’ Orphans’ Home in Davenport. Dr. Johnson and his graduate students put the children under intense psychological pressure, causing them to switch from speaking normally to stuttering heavily. At the time, some of the students reportedly warn Dr. Johnson that, “in the aftermath of World War II, observers might draw comparisons to Nazi experiments on human subjects, which could destroy his career” (Alliance for Human Research Protection).

(1941)

Dr. William C. Black infects a 12-month-old baby with herpes as part of a medical experiment. At the time, the editor of the Journal of Experimental Medicine, Francis Payton Rous, calls it “an abuse of power, an infringement of the rights of an individual, and not excusable because the illness which followed had implications for science” (Sharav).

An article in a 1941 issue of Archives of Pediatrics describes medical studies of the severe gum disease Vincent’s angina in which doctors transmit the disease from sick children to healthy children with oral swabs (Goliszek).

Researchers give 800 poverty-stricken pregnant women at a Vanderbilt University prenatal clinic “cocktails” including radioactive iron in order to determine the iron requirements of pregnant women (Pacchioli).

(1942)

The Chemical Warfare Service begins mustard gas and lewisite experiments on 4,000 members of the U.S. military. Some test subjects don’t realize they are volunteering for chemical exposure experiments, like 17-year-old Nathan Schnurman, who in 1944 thinks he is only volunteering to test “U.S. Navy summer clothes” (Goliszek).

Merck Pharmaceuticals President George Merck is named director of the War Research Service (WRS), an agency designed to oversee the establishment of a biological warfare program (Goliszek).

(1944 – 1946) A captain in the medical corps addresses an April 1944 memo to Col. Stanford Warren, head of the Manhattan Project’s Medical Section, expressing his concerns about atom bomb component fluoride’s central nervous system (CNS) effects and asking for animal research to be done to determine the extent of these effects: “Clinical evidence suggests that uranium hexafluoride may have a rather marked central nervous system effect … It seems most likely that the F component rather than the T is the causative factor … Since work with these compounds is essential, it will be necessary to know in advance what mental effects may occur after exposure.” The following year, the Manhattan Project would begin human-based studies on fluoride’s effects (Griffiths and Bryson).

The Manhattan Project medical team, led by the now infamous University of Rochester radiologist Col. Safford Warren, injects plutonium into patients at the University’s teaching hospital, Strong Memorial (Burton Report).

(1945)

Continuing the Manhattan Project, researchers inject plutonium into three patients at the University of Chicago’s Billings Hospital (Sharav).

The U.S. State Department, Army intelligence and the CIA begin Operation Paperclip, offering Nazi scientists immunity and secret identities in exchange for work on top-secret government projects on aerodynamics and chemical warfare medicine in the United States (“Project Paperclip”).

(1945 – 1955) In Newburgh, N.Y., researchers linked to the Manhattan Project begin the most extensive American study ever done on the health effects of fluoridating public drinking water (Griffiths and Bryson).

(1946)

Continuing the Newburg study of 1945, the Manhattan Project commissions the University of Rochester to study fluoride’s effects on animals and humans in a project codenamed “Program F.” With the help of the New York State Health Department, Program F researchers secretly collect and analyze blood and tissue samples from Newburg residents. The studies are sponsored by the Atomic Energy Commission and take place at the University of Rochester Medical Center’s Strong Memorial Hospital (Griffiths and Bryson).

(1946 – 1947) University of Rochester researchers inject four male and two female human test subjects with uranium-234 and uranium-235 in dosages ranging from 6.4 to 70.7 micrograms per one kilogram of body weight in order to study how much uranium they could tolerate before their kidneys become damaged (Goliszek).

Six male employees of a Chicago metallurgical laboratory are given water contaminated with plutonium-239 to drink so that researchers can learn how plutonium is absorbed into the digestive tract (Goliszek).

Researchers begin using patients in VA hospitals as test subjects for human medical experiments, cleverly worded as “investigations” or “observations” in medical study reports to avoid negative connotations and bad publicity (Sharav).

The American public finally learns of the biowarfare experiments being done at Fort Detrick from a report released by the War Department (Goliszek).

(1947)

Col. E.E. Kirkpatrick of the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) issues a top-secret document (707075) dated Jan. 8. In it, he writes that “certain radioactive substances are being prepared for intravenous administration to human subjects as a part of the work of the contract” (Goliszek).

A secret AEC document dated April 17 reads, “It is desired that no document be released which refers to experiments with humans that might have an adverse reaction on public opinion or result in legal suits,” revealing that the U.S. government was aware of the health risks its nuclear tests posed to military personnel conducting the tests or nearby civilians (Goliszek).

The CIA begins studying LSD’s potential as a weapon by using military and civilian test subjects for experiments without their consent or even knowledge. Eventually, these LSD studies will evolve into the MKULTRA program in 1953 (Sharav).

(1947 – 1953) The U.S. Navy begins Project Chatter to identify and test so-called “truth serums,” such as those used by the Soviet Union to interrogate spies. Mescaline and the central nervous system depressant scopolamine are among the many drugs tested on human subjects (Goliszek).

(1948)

Based on the secret studies performed on Newburgh, N.Y. residents beginning in 1945, Project F researchers publish a report in the August 1948 edition of the Journal of the American Dental Association, detailing fluoride’s health dangers. The U.S. Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) quickly censors it for “national security” reasons (Griffiths and Bryson).

(1950)

(1950 – 1953) The U.S. Army releases chemical clouds over six American and Canadian cities. Residents in Winnipeg, Canada, where a highly toxic chemical called cadmium is dropped, subsequently experience high rates of respiratory illnesses (Cockburn and St. Clair, eds.).

In order to determine how susceptible an American city could be to biological attack, the U.S. Navy sprays a cloud of Bacillus globigii bacteria from ships over the San Francisco shoreline. According to monitoring devices situated throughout the city to test the extent of infection, the eight thousand residents of San Francisco inhale five thousand or more bacteria particles, many becoming sick with pneumonia-like symptoms (Goliszek).

Dr. Joseph Strokes of the University of Pennsylvania infects 200 female prisoners with viral hepatitis to study the disease (Sharav).

Doctors at the Cleveland City Hospital study changes in cerebral blood flow by injecting test subjects with spinal anesthesia, inserting needles in their jugular veins and brachial arteries, tilting their heads down and, after massive blood loss causes paralysis and fainting, measuring their blood pressure. They often perform this experiment multiple times on the same subject (Goliszek).

Dr. D. Ewen Cameron, later of MKULTRA infamy due to his 1957 to1964 experiments on Canadians, publishes an article in the British Journal of Physical Medicine, in which he describes experiments that entail forcing schizophrenic patients at Manitoba’s Brandon Mental Hospital to lie naked under 15- to 200-watt red lamps for up to eight hours per day. His other experiments include placing mental patients in an electric cage that overheats their internal body temperatures to 103 degrees Fahrenheit, and inducing comas by giving patients large injections of insulin (Goliszek).

(1951)

The U.S. Army secretly contaminates the Norfolk Naval Supply Center in Virginia and Washington, D.C.’s National Airport with a strain of bacteria chosen because African-Americans were believed to be more susceptible to it than Caucasians. The experiment causes food poisoning, respiratory problems and blood poisoning (Cockburn and St. Clair, eds.).

(1951 – 1956) Under contract with the Air Force’s School of Aviation Medicine (SAM), the University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center in Houston begins studying the effects of radiation on cancer patients — many of them members of minority groups or indigents, according to sources — in order to determine both radiation’s ability to treat cancer and the possible long-term radiation effects of pilots flying nuclear-powered planes. The study lasts until 1956, involving 263 cancer patients. Beginning in 1953, the subjects are required to sign a waiver form, but it still does not meet the informed consent guidelines established by the Wilson memo released that year. The TBI studies themselves would continue at four different institutions — Baylor University College of Medicine, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Institute for Cancer Research, the U.S. Naval Hospital in Bethesda and the University of Cincinnati College of Medicine — until 1971 (U.S. Department of Energy, Goliszek).

American, Canadian and British military and intelligence officials gather a small group of eminent psychologists to a secret meeting at the Ritz-Carlton Hotel in Montreal about Communist “thought-control techniques.” They proposed a top-secret research program on behavior modification — involving testing drugs, hypnosis, electroshock and lobotomies on humans (Barker).

(1952)

At the famous Sloan-Kettering Institute, Chester M. Southam injects live cancer cells into prisoners at the Ohio State Prison to study the progression of the disease. Half of the prisoners in this National Institutes of Health-sponsored (NIH) study are black, awakening racial suspicions stemming from Tuskegee, which was also an NIH-sponsored study (Merritte, et al.).

(1953 – 1974) The U.S. Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) sponsors iodine studies at the University of Iowa. In the first study, researchers give pregnant women 100 to 200 microcuries of iodine-131 and then study the women’s aborted embryos in order to learn at what stage and to what extent radioactive iodine crosses the placental barrier. In the second study, researchers give 12 male and 13 female newborns under 36 hours old and weighing between 5.5 and 8.5 pounds iodine-131 either orally or via intramuscular injection, later measuring the concentration of iodine in the newborns’ thyroid glands (Goliszek).

As part of an AEC study, researchers feed 28 healthy infants at the University of Nebraska College of Medicine iodine-131 through a gastric tube and then test concentration of iodine in the infants’ thyroid glands 24 hours later (Goliszek).

(1953 – 1957) Eleven patients at Massachusetts General Hospital in Boston are injected with uranium as part of the Manhattan Project (Sharav).

In an AEC-sponsored study at the University of Tennessee, researchers inject healthy two- to three-day-old newborns with approximately 60 rads of iodine-131 (Goliszek).

Newborn Daniel Burton becomes blind when physicians at Brooklyn Doctors Hospital perform an experimental high oxygen treatment for Retrolental Fibroplasia, a retinal disorder affecting premature infants, on him and other premature babies. The physicians perform the experimental treatment despite earlier studies showing that high oxygen levels cause blindness. Testimony in Burton v. Brooklyn Doctors Hospital (452 N.Y.S.2d875) later reveals that researchers continued to give Burton and other infants excess oxygen even after their eyes had swelled to dangerous levels (Goliszek, Sharav).

A 1953 article in Clinical Science describes a medical experiment in which researchers purposely blister the abdomens of 41 children, ranging in age from eight to 14, with cantharide in order to study how severely the substance irritates the skin (Goliszek).

The AEC performs a series of field tests known as “Green Run,” dropping radiodine 131 and xenon 133 over the Hanford, Wash. site — 500,000 acres encompassing three small towns (Hanford, White Bluffs and Richland) along the Columbia River (Sharav).

In an AEC-sponsored study to learn whether radioactive iodine affects premature babies differently from full-term babies, researchers at Harper Hospital in Detroit give oral doses of iodine-131 to 65 premature and full-term infants weighing between 2.1 and 5.5 pounds (Goliszek).

(1955 – 1957) In order to learn how cold weather affects human physiology, researchers give a total of 200 doses of iodine-131, a radioactive tracer that concentrates almost immediately in the thyroid gland, to 85 healthy Eskimos and 17 Athapascan Indians living in Alaska. They study the tracer within the body by blood, thyroid tissue, urine and saliva samples from the test subjects. Due to the language barrier, no one tells the test subjects what is being done to them, so there is no informed consent (Goliszek).

(1956 – 1957) U.S. Army covert biological weapons researchers release mosquitoes infected with yellow fever and dengue fever over Savannah, Ga., and Avon Park, Fla., to test the insects’ ability to carry disease. After each test, Army agents pose as public health officials to test victims for effects and take pictures of the unwitting test subjects. These experiments result in a high incidence of fevers, respiratory distress, stillbirths, encephalitis and typhoid among the two cities’ residents, as well as several deaths (Cockburn and St. Clair, eds.).

(1957)

The U.S. military conducts Operation Plumbbob at the Nevada Test Site, 65 miles northwest of Las Vegas. Operation Pumbbob consists of 29 nuclear detonations, eventually creating radiation expected to result in a total 32,000 cases of thyroid cancer among civilians in the area. Around 18,000 members of the U.S. military participate in Operation Pumbbob’s Desert Rock VII and VIII, which are designed to see how the average foot soldier physiologically and mentally responds to a nuclear battlefield (“Operation Plumbbob”, Goliszek).

(1957 – 1964) As part of MKULTRA, the CIA pays McGill University Department of Psychiatry founder Dr. D. Ewen Cameron $69,000 to perform LSD studies and potentially lethal experiments on Canadians being treated for minor disorders like post-partum depression and anxiety at the Allan Memorial Institute, which houses the Psychiatry Department of the Royal Victoria Hospital in Montreal. The CIA encourages Dr. Cameron to fully explore his “psychic driving” concept of correcting madness through completely erasing one’s memory and rewriting the psyche. These “driving” experiments involve putting human test subjects into drug-, electroshock- and sensory deprivation-induced vegetative states for up to three months, and then playing tape loops of noise or simple repetitive statements for weeks or months in order to “rewrite” the “erased” psyche. Dr. Cameron also gives human test subjects paralytic drugs and electroconvulsive therapy 30 to 40 times, as part of his experiments. Most of Dr. Cameron’s test subjects suffer permanent damage as a result of his work (Goliszek, “Donald Ewan Cameron”).

In order to study how blood flows through children’s brains, researchers at Children’s Hospital in Philadelphia perform the following experiment on healthy children, ranging in age from three to 11: They insert needles into each child’s femoral artery (thigh) and jugular vein (neck), bringing the blood down from the brain. Then, they force each child to inhale a special gas through a facemask. In their subsequent Journal of Clinical Investigation article on this study, the researchers note that, in order to perform the experiment, they had to restrain some of the child test subjects by bandaging them to boards (Goliszek).

(1958)

The U.S. Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) drops radioactive materials over Point Hope, Alaska, home to the Inupiats, in a field test known under the codename “Project Chariot” (Sharav).

(1961)

In response to the Nuremberg Trials, Yale psychologist Stanley Milgram begins his famous Obedience to Authority Study in order to answer his question “Could it be that (Adolf) Eichmann and his million accomplices in the Holocaust were just following orders? Could we call them all accomplices?” Male test subjects, ranging in age from 20 to 40 and coming from all education backgrounds, are told to give “learners” electric shocks for every wrong answer the learners give in response to word pair questions. In reality, the learners are actors and are not receiving electric shocks, but what matters is that the test subjects do not know that. Astoundingly, they keep on following orders and continue to administer increasingly high levels of “shocks,” even after the actor learners show obvious physical pain (“Milgram Experiment”).

(1962)

Researchers at the Laurel Children’s Center in Maryland test experimental acne antibiotics on children and continue their tests even after half of the young test subjects develop severe liver damage because of the experimental medication (Goliszek).

The FDA begins requiring that a new pharmaceutical undergo three human clinical trials before it will approve it. From 1962 to 1980, pharmaceutical companies satisfy this requirement by running Phase I trials, which determine a drug’s toxicity, on prison inmates, giving them small amounts of cash for compensation (Sharav).

(1963)

Chester M. Southam, who injected Ohio State Prison inmates with live cancer cells in 1952, performs the same procedure on 22 senile, African-American female patients at the Brooklyn Jewish Chronic Disease Hospital in order to watch their immunological response. Southam tells the patients that they are receiving “some cells,” but leaves out the fact that they are cancer cells. He claims he doesn’t obtain informed consent from the patients because he does not want to frighten them by telling them what he is doing, but he nevertheless temporarily loses his medical license because of it. Ironically, he eventually becomes president of the American Cancer Society (Greger, Merritte, et al.).

Researchers at the University of Washington directly irradiate the testes of 232 prison inmates in order to determine radiation’s effects on testicular function. When these inmates later leave prison and have children, at least four have babies born with birth defects. The exact number is unknown because researchers never follow up on the men to see the long-term effects of their experiment (Goliszek).

(1963 – 1966) New York University researcher Saul Krugman promises parents with mentally disabled children definite enrollment into the Willowbrook State School in Staten Island, N.Y., a resident mental institution for mentally retarded children, in exchange for their signatures on a consent form for procedures presented as “vaccinations.” In reality, the procedures involve deliberately infecting children with viral hepatitis by feeding them an extract made from the feces of infected patients, so that Krugman can study the course of viral hepatitis as well the effectiveness of a hepatitis vaccine (Hammer Breslow).

(1963 – 1971) Leading endocrinologist Dr. Carl Heller gives 67 prison inmates at Oregon State Prison in Salem $5 per month and $25 per testicular tissue biopsy in compensation for allowing him to perform irradiation experiments on their testes. If they receive vasectomies at the end of the study, the prisoners are given an extra $100 (Sharav, Goliszek).

Researchers inject a genetic compound called radioactive thymidine into the testicles of more than 100 Oregon State Penitentiary inmates to learn whether sperm production is affected by exposure to steroid hormones (Greger).

In a study published in Pediatrics, researchers at the University of California’s Department of Pediatrics use 113 newborns ranging in age from one hour to three days old in a series of experiments used to study changes in blood pressure and blood flow. In one study, doctors insert a catheter through the newborns’ umbilical arteries and into their aortas and then immerse the newborns’ feet in ice water while recording aortic pressure. In another experiment, doctors strap 50 newborns to a circumcision board, tilt the table so that all the blood rushes to their heads and then measure their blood pressure (Goliszek).

(1964 – 1967) The Dow Chemical Company pays Professor Kligman $10,000 to learn how dioxin — a highly toxic, carcinogenic component of Agent Orange — and other herbicides affect human skin because workers at the chemical plant have been developing an acne-like condition called Chloracne and the company would like to know whether the chemicals they are handling are to blame. As part of the study, Professor Kligman applies roughly the amount of dioxin Dow employees are exposed to on the skin 60 prisoners, and is disappointed when the prisoners show no symptoms of Chloracne. In 1980 and 1981, the human guinea pigs used in this study would begin suing Professor Kligman for complications including lupus and psychological damage (Kaye).

See the complete list here.