Scientists replicate extinct DNA from a frog’s frozen tissue


Scientific advances continue to amaze in the field of cloning. A group of researchers from Newcastle (UK) and Sydney have managed to “return to life” the genome of a frog, the Rheobatrachus silus, which became extinct in 1983. The achievement was completed through the manipulation of amphibian tissues that were kept frozen since 1970.

The main peculiarity of this amphibian was the method of gestation of offspring. The Rheobatrachus devoured their own fertilized eggs, to  incubate them inside its stomach and gave birth through the mouth.

For five years, the scientists used the same technique performed for cloning Dolly the sheep, the transfer of somatic nuclear cells. To carry it out, the researchers used amphibian eggs of a family close to the disappeared frog, the Mixophyes fasciolatus. They blocked the nucleus of that cell and inoculated the animal that disappeared 30 years ago.

The results surprised the makers themselves who collaborate on an initiative called Project Lazarus. Some of the eggs handled extinct amphibian genome spontaneously began to divide and grow into an embryonic stage. Unfortunately, none of the embryos survived the process. Tests however showed that cells containing genetic material divided into Rheobatrachus silus.

“We revived dead cells, and thus have also revived the extinct frog’s genome. Now we have the frog’s cells cryopreserved for future use in cloning experiments,” said the head of Project Lazarus, Professor Mike Archer.

“We are increasingly confident that the obstacles ahead are not biological but technological” he stressed, adding that “it is important to note that we have shown how this technology promises as a conservation tool in a time when hundreds of species world’s amphibians are threatened with extinction. ”

After the immense achievement Archer’s team believes that the options are almost limitless. The Lazarus Project encouraging successes prompted scientists to think about the recovery of extinct mammals of Australia, the Tasmanian tiger or the mammoth.


As células cancerosas causam caos no seu código genético


Cientistas do Cancer Research UK e o Instituto do Câncer da Universidade College de Londres, descobriram que o câncer cria literalmente o caos no código genético, o qual permite que se multiplique aceledaramente. A descoberta foi publicada esta semana na revista Nature.

A maioria das células humanas têm 46 cromossomos, mas, algumas células cancerosas podem ter mais de 100 cromossomos. Este fato, no entanto, é inconsistente quando analisado um grupo de células da mesma região, porque cada uma pode ter uma contagem de cromossomos diferentes.

Esta diversidade é o que permite que os tumores se adaptem e sejam intratáveis. Assim eles podem colonizar outras partes do corpo, como os autores explicaram à BBC.

Durante uma investigação para tentar encontrar respostas para a diversificação dos tipos de câncer, cientistas descobriram que, no caso de câncer de cólon há “poucas provas” de que uma célula cancerosa possa criar novas células com cromossomos divididos igualmente.

Como explicado por Charles Swanton, um dos autores do estudo, o problema foi observado nas cópias do código genético do câncer. Cânceres são incentivados a fazer cópias de si mesmos. Quando as células cancerosas esgotam o seu DNA, elas desenvolvem o que é chamado de “estresse de replicação do DNA.”

Neste sentido, o estudo mostrou que esse estresse leva a cometer erros e a diversificação de tumores. “É como construir um prédio sem tijolos ou concreto suficientes na sua fundação”, disse Swanton. “No entanto, se você pode fornecer DNA como matéria-prima, é possível reduzir o estresse na diversificação e limitar a duplicação de tumores, o que pode ser terapêutico”, acrescentou.

O especialista admitiu que “parece simplesmente incorreto” fornecer combustível para o câncer, mas que suas observações mostram que  esse fornecimento pode limitar a forma e rapidez com que o câncer se espalha.

Swanton diz que esta técnica mostrou que o problema e relacionado ao estresse na replicação e que pode ajudar a criar novas formas de  atacar o câncer.

Além disso, Swanton e sua equipe identificaram que três genes são normalmente perdidos na diversificação de células de câncer intestinal, o que foi fundamental para que o câncer sofresse de estresse na replicação do DNA.

Todas as células estavam localizadas na região do cromossomo 18. Esta região, como explicado por Nic Jones do Cancer Research UK, e “perdida” em muitos tipos de câncer “, sugerindo que este processo não é exclusivo para o câncer de cólon.”

“Os cientistas podem agora começar a procurar maneiras de evitar que isso ocorra e tornar a instabilidade em um fator que ajude a lutar  contra o câncer.”

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Cancer cells cause Mayhem in your Genetic Code


Scientists from Cancer Research UK and the Cancer Institute at the University College of London, have discovered that cancer literally creates chaos in the genetic code which is what allows it to multiply. The finding was published in the Journal Nature.

Most human body cells have 46 chromosomes but, instead, some cancer cells may have more than 100 chromosomes. This fact, however, is inconsistent when analyzed as a group of cells of the same region, as each may have a different chromosome count.

This diversity is what allows tumors to adapt to be intractable and can colonize other parts of the body, as the authors have explained to the BBC.

During an investigation to try to find answers to the diversification of the types of cancer, they found that in the case of colon cancer there is “little evidence” that when a cancer cell divides to create new cells the chromosomes are divided equally.

As explained by Charles Swanton, one of the authors of the study, it was observed that the problem originated in the copies of the genetic code of cancer. Cancers are encouraged to make copies of themselves. But when cancer cells deplete their own raw material or DNA, they developed what it is called “DNA replication stress.”

In this sense, the study showed that this stress leads them to make mistakes and diversification of tumors. “It’s like building a building without bricks or concrete enough at its foundation,” said Swanton. “However, if you can supply raw material DNA, it is possible to reduce stress on diversification to limit the duplication of tumors, which can be therapeutic,” he added.

The expert admitted that “it seems simply incorrect” to provide fuel for therapeutic cancer to grow, but that their observations are that such supply may limit the way and quickness with which cancer spreads.

Swanton notes that this technique has proven that the problem was about replication stress and that the finding can help provide news ideas as to how to attack the cancer.

In addition, Swanton and his team identified three genes that are normally lost in the diversification of intestinal cancer cells, which was critical for cancer suffering from stress in DNA replication.

All cells were located in a region of chromosome 18. This region, as explained by Nic Jones from Cancer Research UK, is “lost” in many cancers, “suggesting that this process is not unique to colon cancer.”

“Scientists can now start looking for ways to prevent this disorder from occurring or turning that instability into a factor that fights the cancer.”

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Scientist claims it is possible to reverse extinction


The statement makes many Jurassic Park fans rub their hands. According to scientist Stewart Brand, colleagues are attempting to reassemble the genome of extinct animals and other beings in order bring them back to life.

While speaking at a TED conference in Sausalito, California, Brand said that scientists are that much close to developing a process which would allow humans to generate enough material to recreate animals that no longer live on Earth.According to the creator of the Whole Earth Catalog, “de-extinction” would be a fantastic tool to bring back organisms and complete ecosystems that disappeared through time.

“Biotechnology is about to liberate conservation, at least a part of conservation, in a pretty spectacular way,” said Brand. He fancies himself as a “cheerleader” who encourages researchers to take on the type of challenges he spoke about at TED. He said scientists are working on a way to use DNA to re-create the passenger pigeon, a bird that became extinct in 1914.

The passenger pigeon is considered a keystone species because it aided the survival of the buffalo. Researchers believe it is possible to change the genetic code of a type of bird known as the band-tailed pigeon, to then re-engineer the passenger pigeon.

“The result won’t be perfect, but it should be perfect enough because nature doesn’t do perfect either,” he added.

So far, attempts to bring back ancient creatures have failed. Back in 2010, an extinct variety of mountain goat created in a lab, died after just a few minutes due to lung defects, reports the Marine Independent Journal. Mr. Brand took his opportunity to remind the audience that, according to him, humans are to blame for the extinction of many species.

“Humans have made a huge hole in nature in the last 10,000 years,” Brand said. “We have the ability now, and maybe the moral obligation, to repair some of the damage,” he said. However, Mr. Brand did not explain much about the impact that these experiments would have in today’s environment, or detailed what are the dangers of recreating ancient organisms.

If we take into account modern history, it is clear that scientists have perfected the ability to reproduce bacteria, viruses and other pathogens mainly for the sake of warfare. In many occasions, these pathogens have escaped –accidentally or not– high security labs causing panic on populations exposed to them. The use of recreated organisms, chemical and biological agents to subdue populations has also been a reality in the 20th and 21st centuries and genetically modified organisms are already poisoning the planet.

Perhaps Mr. Brand should point out very clearly who are humans he refers to when blaming people for environmental damage. Also, as we learned from Jurassic Park, no one enjoys having a tyrannosaur Rex roaming their neighborhoods.

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Genetic Genocide: How misused Science Threatens Life

The problem with genetic modification of plants, animals and plants; cloning and splicing genes is not its existence, but the results of this unregulated practice.


If you are partially or totally ignorant about genetically modified products, I will not blame you. In 15 years of research I have not been able to get a significant grasp on what genetically engineering humans, fish, soy, corn, milk and other products could mean for humankind.

When I set out to write this article my first challenge was how to present the information in a concise, yet shocking enough to wake up people who still believe that cloning humans for organ harvesting, splicing animal and human genes and making food out of human DNA or tissue is just science fiction.

I thought then, that the most appealing way to start off was to simply provide the headlines of some of the articles and documents I found during my research process, so that the readers had an immediate notion of what genetic engineering really means and how it affects them directly now and how it will affect them in the future. Posting the headlines will also facilitate the research for you and will give you the opportunity to do your own investigative work.

So let’s see what the headlines tell us.

Why the future doesn’t need us.

New Federal Guidelines Will Allow Creation of Human-Animals Chimeras

GM Food Dangers Include: Low Fertility, Organ Damage and Hormone Disruption

GM goat spins web based future

‘Spider-goats’ start work on wonder web

Transgenic fish could threaten wild populations

‘Trojan gene’ could wipe out fish

Chimeras, Cloning and Freak Human-Animal Hybrids

Bone marrow cell-mediated production of transgenic chickens Open

Part Human/Part Animal Hybrid Monsters Are Being Created By Scientists All Over The Planet

Human-rabbit clone announced and no noses twitch

The Case for Fertility Control Using Immuno-contraception

Endosulfan and Endocrine Disruption:

Human Risk Characterization

19 Studies Link GMO Foods to Organ Disruption

GMO Pesticides linked to birth defects, disruption of male hormones, cancer

On top of the fact genetic engineering is literally compared with “Playing God” with the building blocks of life, you should know that this widely exercised practice is almost completely unregulated. Furthermore, there are initiatives to promote its deregulation and to create legislation to exempt genetic engineering from all oversight. My question regarding genetic engineering deregulation was then: What would happen if scientists who are provided with unlimited money and resources have no legal liability to realize their experiments cloning humans and literally engineering new species?

Last time scientists were given unlimited funding and resources they manage to create things like the nuclear bomb, the hydrogen bomb, and nowadays, they are trying to imitate the origin of the universe with the already infamous Supercollider. We all know what happened when corporations and governments with no oversight got their hands on the first two pieces of technology.

When you think about genetically modified organisms it is always tempting to believe that such organisms are created and experimented with only in industrialized countries, where high tech labs are available. Maybe you think they are only held at research labs that belong to pharmaceutical corporations or public and private universities. What would you think if I told you that human-animal cloning, for example, is carried out in Costa Rica, and that this practice has been taking place for at least a decade there? It was reported in the Washington Post, which described discussions about human cloning among scientists:

“During one recent meeting, scientists disagreed on such basic issues as whether it would be unethical for a human embryo to begin its development in an animal’s womb, and whether a mouse would be better or worse off with a brain made of human neurons..”

So, hundreds of companies and governments are free to carry out genetic experiments in thousands of laboratories, mixing genes from several species, and are completely free to put it in food and water supplies across the planet with no oversight. That is the conclusion of the situation that we now face.

Evidence of Genetic Engineering, Cloning and Splicing

If you cannot or do not want to get into the heavy research, I am about to give you a detailed report on the state of genetic engineering, human-animal cloning and gene splicing.

Let’s start by possibly the most disturbing but not the newest fact. There are scientists out there splicing human and cow genes for the purpose of promoting the growth of human clones in cow wombs. Cloned humans and or animals would be “living drug factories by producing valuable pharmaceutical substances in their milk, or as organ factories because theirs will not be rejected by the human immune system.”

The reason for the cloning of humans and animals and the splicing of their genes is what I often cite as the sneaky treat of convenience. Sure, there is a need to find cures for all disease and to have organs available when people’s own rotten because they smoke for 40 years or drank their pension funds until the end. Would not it be convenient to have an organ bank, or a cure for lung and stomach cancer? Who would oppose to growing human fetuses in animal wombs, or extracting the organs of living animals or fellow humans to substitute our own? Convenient, right? Wrong.

In a farm near Reno Nevada, a farmer keeps sheep that hold human livers, hearts, brains among others. The “scientist” who is in charge of the experiment said he could not wait to see the effects the human cells had on the brain of the animal. He had himself injected those genes. According to the report from the Associated press, this kind of experiments fall within the new ethics guidelines that govern the type of “scientific research conducted at the farm.

In an article dated June 19 2011, The London Telegraph announces that pigs are now able to host organs from other species as “scientists have found they can create chimeric animals that have organs belonging to another species by injecting stem cells into the embryo of another species.” Another article from the Daily Mail advertises how pigs will serve as human organ farms. “Human organs could be grown inside pigs for use in transplant operations following pioneering research.” Then they launched the convenience hook again by saying that “The method would help reduce the risk of the transplanted organ being rejected.” This type of experiments will also allow animals to provide blood for transfusions whenever a patient needs it. So, the clone will be harvested for its organs and people will have on-demand organ transplantation.

The New Atlantis publication even dared to ask why wouldn’t be a good idea to use artificial wombs. The undated article claims that using human and / or animal cells or genes is a fairly new and imperfect practice. Probably the author ignores that this kind genetic manipulation has been discussed — if not applied — since the mid 1960’s. So there is nothing new here.

The Plan Behind Genetically Engineering Humans and Food

One aspect often ignored in the discussion of human cloning and genetic engineering, is the goals; the real goals these practices seek. Because believe, no matter how convenient it sounds, it is not for aiding humans live a longer, healthier life. Corporations and tax payer funded universities are researching how to enhance human and other forms of life because those who get to implement these technologies intend to have a humanless future. Does it sound insane enough? The article on The New Atlantis attempts to be positive about these experiments and related them to a brighter, healthier future for humankind. “Today, we have inched slightly—but only slightly—closer to perfecting the technology that would realize Haldane’s vision, albeit for reasons other than the eugenic improvement of the race.” The problem is, that is exactly where human genetic experiments originated and that is why they are still being carried out. If the future does not need humans to invent, design, construct, repair or reproduce, why would the world need humans? Mimicking human reproductive powers, as the author from The New Atlantis says, is named “ectogenesis” and has been tried for centuries.

Rather than expending all scientific talent and resources developing artificial wombs,” Reason science correspondent Ronald Bailey wrote recently, “I suspect that it will be much easier and cheaper to establish pregnancies with human embryos in other mammals, like cows and horses, than it will be to achieve the same thing using artificial uteruses.”

Although modern technology allows all kinds of experiments in medicine, food, water and even air, the overall goal is not and will not be to help humanity extend its presence in this planet. Most articles I found through my research present all kind of scenarios where genetic engineering would be applied for our benefit. From spider goats to human milk in cows’ utters,  genetically modified salmon, soy or corn, the applications seem to be endless. One of the most common responses when pro GMO people are questioned about the dangers of playing with life is that it will help feed the hungry or aid the poor.

But in practice, any and all life extension technology — as we see it now with electronics — only cause further degeneration of the human race. Through convenience, empty promises and what ifs, those who are empowered by their riches and political power want to use our own DNA to end human life as we know it.

In an article titled Why the Future Doesn’t Need Us, Wired magazine explores the possibility that humans will become a threatened species as more and more technologies turn us into useless eaters, as some globalists have called humankind. Humans who are ‘chosen’ to actually take advantage of the latest technology will merge with robots or become robots in what will become the next sentient creatures. As Ray Kurzweil, the inventor of the first reading machine for the blind writes in his book The Age of Spiritual Machines, those fortunate humans will gain near immortality by becoming one with robotic technology. But what will happen to the rest of us, or our children and grandchildren who will come after us?

What does the Genetic Engineering Threat Entail?

Simply put, the out-of-control insanity of modern science and biotechnology implies Genetic Genocide. Depending on where you obtain information, scientists and researchers coincide that the common denominator of genetically engineered forms of life is the end of current forms of life. According to researcher Jeffrey Smith, when lab animals were fed genetically engineered organisms, it resulted in complete sterilization. Such sterilization came in some cases in the second and third generations, but scientists also saw test subjects losing its capacity to reproduce during the subject’s life term.

William Muir and Richard Howard of Purdue University, Indiana, warned about a ‘trojan’ gene in fish which could wipe out natural forms of fish off the planet if GM fish are released into the wild or escape from farms. “This resembles the Trojan horse,” said Muir. “It gets into the population looking like something good and it ends up destroying the population.” Both Muir and Howard studied the use of human growth hormone in fish, which in now being used in laboratory experiments to make salmon grow bigger, faster while eating less feed. The researchers found that GM fish turned sexually mature faster than the rest and produced more eggs as well. According to a report from the BBC, professor Muir asserts that GMO fish “would enjoy the same reproductive advantages of a natural one, so the hGH gene would quickly spread through a fish population.”

Human Growth Hormone (hGH) is also put in the feed given to cattle and other farm animals which humans consume later. Coincidentally, both male and female humans have experienced physical development with girls getting to puberty at earlier and earlier ages, while boys have suffered from hormonal changes that many researchers associate with the feminization of a large portion of human males.

Other studies on genetically modified organisms show that its consumption results in problems such as low fertility, organ damage and hormone disruption. This last one is specifically important, because it is through hormonal disruption that some scientists have discovered how and why some men are beginning to lose interest in mating and some women choose same sex mates instead of men. In the study titled: “A Comparison of the Effects of Three GM Corn Varieties on Mammalian Health the International Journal on Biological Sciences found that Monsanto’s Bt corn contributes to liver failure. All types of Monsanto-created GMO corn (Mon 863, Mon810, and NK 603) are approved by the FDA and labeled as safe for human consumption in the United States and Europe.

Other studies conducted using pesticides, revealed that these chemical products cause endocrine disruptions. Ingredients such as glyphosate, used in Roundup, increases the number of birth defects in animals. Birth defects include something called cyclopia, or the appearance of one single eye in the middle of the forehead. Additionally, glyphosate causes stillbirths and miscarriages.

A study conducted in Argentina, confirmed what older studies have found regarding the consequences of ingesting products contaminated with pesticides and herbicides. Andres Carrasco, head of the Molecular Embryology Laboratory at the University of Buenos Aires, presented a report that explains how Monsanto’s Roundup is responsible for causing infertility, sperm destruction, and cancer. Carrasco tested the effects of glyphosate on animal embryos and found that the chemical alters and impairs proper embryonic development. “I didn’t discover anything new,” said Carrasco, “I just confirmed what other scientists discovered… There is scientific proof and, above all, there are hundreds of affected towns [that] are a living evidence of this public health emergency.”

Recently, the UK Daily Mail reported on how scientist in England are experimenting with half human, half animal clones and how these experiments have been kept in secret. “The revelation comes just a day after a committee of scientists warned of a nightmare ‘Planet of the Apes’ scenario in which work on human-animal creations goes too far,” reads the article.

But the toughest cookie to chew is not any of these examples of human, animal or plant manipulations I have provided examples of. As mentioned before, nothing good comes out of corporations, governments, or for that matter scientists controlled by and / or paid for these two entities. The subject then, moves to bio-weapons. For the past century, at least, governments in association with the biotechnology industry launched a movement to produce biological weapons that were race specific. These bio-weapons would be used in war to wipe out enemy populations. What are the chances that those bio-weapons are used on all of us? Just about the same chances genetically engineered organisms have of making it to our food and water supplies. In other words, it is highly likely. As the link above exemplifies, former US Defense Secretary William Cohen described what he thought was the threat posed by certain countries that sought to develop “certain types of pathogens” that were ethnic-specific.

The infamous document titled: Rebuilding America’s Defenses: Strategy, Forces and Resources describes how the establishment may seek to develop “advanced forms of biological warfare that can target specific genotypes… …transforming biological warfare into a political useful tool.” No matter what human or animal disease you think about, rest assured that the establishment has thought of them all as possible biological weapons. Hemorrhagic fever, Ebola are two of those experimented upon weapons, which by the way were first tested on animals.

Aside from biological weapons, the more mundane genetic engineering that is supposed to benefit humanity is suddenly turning against its creators. Those tiny modifications performed to human, animal and plant genes, are not finding their ways out of human control and getting to other species. As reported on, scientists at Bristol University announced the discovery of a route, which genetically engineered organisms ‘jump’ through to invade the environment. This invasion, the scientists say could come in the form of infection or multiplication, no matter what barriers are set between species.

So if it is not from natural mutation or infection derived from some insane scientists “Playing God”, humans are threatened by establishment-created biological weapons that can be directed to specific races or ethnicities. Choose your poison. Either way, we have been and continue to be genetically engineered.

GMO foods and other chemicals are the origin of most allergies. Meanwhile, governments fight alongside with pharmaceutical and chemical corporations to ban any type of labeling of GMO ingredients in food. Most people do not even know that the meat they are eating comes from a cloned or cross species bull or that the milk they are drinking comes from a cloned cow. How could they? There are no labels!

The rates of once rare diseases such as cancer, diabetes, autism as well as allergies and other health problems are now going through the roof, and this has no other origin, as I have shown here, than the genetic Russian roulette game played by mad scientists who are supported by an out-of-control ruling class. The same people who experimented on children by giving them polio and syphilis, the same establishment that weaponized air borne Ebola and finances abortions in China; who tell us that family planning is the greatest tool for women’s independence are the same people that in the pursue of ‘human immortality’ are endangering our own existence.

This is what we know about the threat posed to humans by Genetic Engineering. This is what I know, anyways. Can you imagine what we do not know?

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Consulted Materials:

Life Magazine.Control of Life. 1965.

Wired Magazine.Why the Future Doesn’t Need Us. April 2000.

Organic Consumers Association. New Federal Guidelines Will Allow Creation of Human-Animals Chimeras. April 27, 2005.

Natural Living 360. GM Food Dangers Include: Low Fertility, Organ Damage and Hormone Disruption. May 30, 2011. Scientists Discover New Route For GM Genes To Jump Species. March 4, 2011.

BBC. GM goat spins web based future. August 21, 2000.

The Telegraph. ‘Spider-goats’ start work on wonder web. Jan 18, 2002.

Purdue University News. Transgenic fish could threaten wild populations. April 2000.

BBC. ‘Trojan gene’ could wipe out fish. December 1, 1999.

Infowars. Chimeras, Cloning and Freak Human-Animal Hybrids. November 23, 2004.

Laboratory Investigation. Bone marrow cell-mediated production of transgenic chickens.April 25, 2011.

The American Dream. Part Human/Part Animal Hybrid Monsters Are Being Created By Scientists All Over The Planet.

Natural News. Phthalate warning: Medications contain chemicals that “feminize” unborn baby boys. November 17, 2009.

ABI. Human-rabbit clone announced and no noses twitch. August 26, 2003.

Lisa K. Chambers, Malcolm A. Lawson and Lyn A. Hinds. The Case for Fertility Control Using Immunocontraception.

Laura M. Plunkett, Ph.D., DABT Integrative Biostrategies, LLC. Endosulfan and Endocrine Disruption: Human Risk Characterization. June 23, 2008.

Dr.Mercola. 19 Studies Link GMO Foods to Organ Disruption. April 27, 2011

Dr. Leonard Coldwell. GMO Pesticides linked to birth defects, disruption of male hormones, cancer. April 28, 2011.

NPR. Cloned Beef: It’s What’s for Dinner?  January 16, 2008.

Consumer Affair. Genetically Engineered Foods May Cause Rising Food Allergies. June 8, 2007