Internet Dictatorship Begins in Singapore

A “new” system that records every move, stores all passwords and homogenizes software and that will control the net from 3 major hubs.

by John Markoff
NYTimes
June 25, 2011

A small group of Internet security specialists gathered in Singapore this week to start up a global system to make e-mail and e-commerce more secure, end the proliferation of passwords and raise the bar significantly for Internet scam artists, spies and troublemakers.

“It won’t matter where you are in the world or who you are in the world, you’re going to be able to authenticate everyone and everything,” said Dan Kaminsky, an independent network security researcher who is one of the engineers involved in the project.

The Singapore event included an elaborate technical ceremony to create and then securely store numerical keys that will be kept in three hardened data centers there, in Zurich and in San Jose, Calif. The keys and data centers are working parts of a technology known as Secure DNS, or DNSSEC. DNS refers to the Domain Name System, which is a directory that connects names to numerical Internet addresses. Preliminary work on the security system had been going on for more than a year, but this was the first time the system went into operation, even though it is not quite complete.

The three centers are fortresses made up of five layers of physical, electronic and cryptographic security, making it virtually impossible to tamper with the system. Four layers are active now. The fifth, a physical barrier, is being built inside the data center.

The technology is viewed by many computer security specialists as a ray of hope amid the recent cascade of data thefts, attacks, disruptions and scandals, including break-ins at Citibank, Sony, Lockheed Martin, RSA Security and elsewhere. It allows users to communicate via the Internet with high confidence that the identity of the person or organization they are communicating with is not being spoofed or forged.

Internet engineers like Mr. Kaminsky want to counteract three major deficiencies in today’s Internet. There is no mechanism for ensuring trust, the quality of software is uneven, and it is difficult to track down bad actors.

One reason for these flaws is that from the 1960s through the 1980s the engineers who designed the network’s underlying technology were concerned about reliable, rather than secure, communications. That is starting to change with the introduction of Secure DNS by governments and other organizations.

The event in Singapore capped a process that began more than a year ago and is expected to be complete after 300 so-called top-level domains have been digitally signed, around the end of the year. Before the Singapore event, 70 countries had adopted the technology, and 14 more were added as part of the event. While large countries are generally doing the technical work to include their own domains in the system, the consortium of Internet security specialists is helping smaller countries and organizations with the process.

The United States government was initially divided over the technology. The Department of Homeland Security included the .gov domain early in 2009, while the Department of Commerce initially resisted including the .us domain because some large Internet corporations opposed the deployment of the technology, which is incompatible with some older security protocols.

Internet security specialists said the new security protocol would initially affect Web traffic and e-mail. Most users should be mostly protected by the end of the year, but the effectiveness for a user depends on the participation of the government, Internet providers and organizations and businesses visited online. Eventually the system is expected to have a broad effect on all kinds of communications, including voice calls that travel over the Internet, known as voice-over-Internet protocol.

“In the very long term it will be voice-over-I.P. that will benefit the most,” said Bill Woodcock, research director at the Packet Clearing House, a group based in Berkeley, Calif., that is assisting Icann, the Internet governance organization, in deploying Secure DNS.

Secure DNS makes it possible to make phone calls over the Internet secure from eavesdropping and other kinds of snooping, he said.

Security specialists are hopeful that the new Secure DNS system will enable a global authentication scheme that will be more impenetrable and less expensive than an earlier system of commercial digital certificates that proved vulnerable in a series of prominent compromises.

The first notable case of a compromise of the digital certificates — electronic documents that establish a user’s credentials in business or other transactions on the Web — occurred a decade ago when VeriSign, a prominent vendor of the certificates, mistakenly issued two of them to a person who falsely claimed to represent Microsoft.

Last year, the authors of the Stuxnet computer worm that was used to attack the Iranian uranium processing facility at Natanz were able to steal authentic digital certificates from Taiwanese technology companies. The certificates were used to help the worm evade digital defenses intended to block malware.

In March, Comodo, a firm that markets digital certificates, said it had been attacked by a hacker based in Iran who was trying to use the stolen documents to masquerade as companies like Google, Microsoft, Skype and Yahoo.

“At some point the trust gets diluted, and it’s just not as good as it used to be,” said Rick Lamb, the manager of Icann’s Secure DNS program.

The deployment of Secure DNS will significantly lower the cost of adding a layer of security, making it more likely that services built on the technology will be widely available, according to computer network security specialists. It will also potentially serve as a foundation technology for an ambitious United States government effort begun this spring to create a system to ensure “trusted identities” in cyberspace.

El Cartel de la Reserva Federal: Un Parásito Financiero

Por Dean Henderson
Adaptación Luis R. Miranda
20 de junio 2011

Parte Final

El padre del fundador de la Unión Mundial Federalista, James Warburg fue Paul Warburg, que financió a Hitler con la ayuda de Brown Brothers Harriman, socio de Prescott Bush. [1]

El coronel Ely Garrison fue un amigo cercano tanto de Roosevelt, como del presidente Woodrow Wilson. Garrison escribió en Roosevelt, Wilson y la Reserva Federal, “fue Paul Warburg el hombre que creó la Ley de Reserva Federal después de que el Plan Aldrich despertó resentimiento y oposición en todo el país. El cerebro de ambos planes era el barón Alfred Rothschild de Londres. ”

El Plan Aldrich se fraguó en una reunión secreta de 1910 en el complejo privado de JP Morgan en Jekyll Island, Carolina del Sur entre el teniente Nelson Aldrich Rockefeller y Paul Warburg de la dinastía bancaria alemana Warburg. Aldrich, un congresista de Nueva York, más tarde se casó en la familia Rockefeller. Su hijo Winthrop Aldrich presidió Chase Manhattan Bank. Mientras que los banqueros se reunieron, el coronel Edward House, otro títere Rockefeller y confidente cercano del presidente Woodrow Wilson, estaba ocupado convenciendo a Wilson de la importancia de un banco central privado y la introducción de un impuesto sobre la renta a nivel nacional. Un miembro del personal de la Casa de Representantes fue el privilegiado de M16 británico, el General Julius Klein. [2]

Wilson no necesitó mucho convencimiento, ya que estaba en deuda con el magnate del cobre Cleveland Dodge, cuyo mismo nombre fue usado en la empresa Phelps Dodge que se convirtió en una de las compañías mineras más grandes del mundo. Dodge financió la carrera política de Wilson. Wilson llegó a escribir su discurso inaugural en el yate de Dodge. [3]

Wilson era un compañero de clase de los Dodge y Cyrus McCormick de Princeton. Ambos fueron directores del National Bank de Rockefeller (ahora Citigroup). El foco principal de Wilson era la superación de la desconfianza que el público tenía de los banqueros, sobre lo cual el alcalde de Nueva York John Hylan, también se quejó en 1911 cuando sostuvo: “La verdadera amenaza a nuestra república es el gobierno invisible que, al igual que un pulpo gigante, se extiende en su longitud viscosa sobre nuestras ciudades, estados y nación. A la cabeza está un pequeño grupo de casas bancarias, generalmente conocido como los banqueros internacionales “. [4]

Sin embargo, las ocho familias prevalecieron. En 1913, nació el Banco de la Reserva Federal, con Paul Warburg como su primer gobernador. Cuatro años más tarde, los EE.UU. entró en la Primera Guerra Mundial, después que una sociedad secreta conocida como la Mano Negra asesinado el archiduque Fernando de Habsburgo y su esposa. El Archiduque era amigo del Conde Czerin, quien más tarde dijo: “Un año antes de la guerra él [ el archiduque] me informó de que los masones habían decidido asesinarlo.” [5]

Ese mismo año, los bolcheviques derrocaron la monarquía Hohehzollern en Rusia con la ayuda de Max Warburg y Jacob Schiff, mientras que la Declaración de Balfour condujo a la creación de Israel. Esta declaración fue escrita por el sionista Lord Rothschild.

En la década de 1920 el Barón Edmund de Rothschild fundó la Comisió de Economía Palestina, mientras que las oficinas de Kuhn Loeb de Manhattan ayudaron a Rothschild a formar una red para el contrabando de armas a los escuadrones de la muerte sionistas empeñados en apoderarse de las tierras palestinas. El General Julius Klein supervisó la operación y dirigió al Cuerpo de Contrainteligencia del Ejército de los EE.UU., que más tarde produjo a Henry Kissinger. Klein desvió fondos del Plan Marshall para Europa hacia células terroristas sionistas en Palestina después de la Segunda Guerra Mundial. La canalización de los fondos se dio a través del Instituto Sonneborn, que fue controlado por el magnate de la química de Baltimore, Rudolph Sonneborn. Su esposa Dorothy Schiff está relacionada con los Warburg. [6]

Kuhn Loeb llegó a Manhattan con los Warburg. Al mismo tiempo, los Bronfman llegaron a Canadá como parte de la Comisión de Colonización Judía de Moisés Montefiore. Los Montefiores llevaron a cabo el trabajo sucio de la nobleza genovesa desde el siglo 13. Los di Spadaforas hicieron esa función para la casa italiana de Saboya, que fue financiada por la familia de Israel Moses Seif, nombre del cual se origina la palabra Israel que fue dada como nombre para el actual estado judío. Harold Sebag Montefiore es el jefe actual de la Fundación Jerusalén, el ala sionista de los Caballeros de San Juan de Jerusalén. Los Bronfman (el nombre significa “gente del alcohol” en yiddish) se unieron a Arnold Rothstein, un producto del imperio de los Rothschild, para fundar el crimen organizado en la ciudad de Nueva York. Rothstein fue sucedido por Lucky Luciano, Meyer Lansky, Robert Vesco y Santos Trafficante. Los Bronfman se mezclaron con los Rothschild, Loeb y Lamberts. [7]

El año 1917 también vio la adición de la 16 ª Enmienda a la Constitución de los EE.UU., la imposición de un impuesto sobre la renta nacional, a pesar de que fue ratificado por sólo dos de los 36 estados requeridos. El IRS es una empresa privada registrada en Delaware. [8] Cuatro años antes, la Fundación Rockefeller se puso en marcha, para proteger la riqueza de la familia de las disposiciones fiscales, mientras que manipulaba la opinión pública a través de la ingeniería social. Uno de sus tentáculos es el Consejo General de Educación estadounidense.

En la Carta Ocasional # 1 del Consejo dice: “En nuestros sueños tenemos recursos ilimitados y las personas se entregan con perfecta docilidad al alcance de nuestros moldeo. Las convenciones de la educación actual desaparecerán de su mente y, sin vernos obstaculizados por la tradición, vamos a trabajar nuestra propia buena voluntad a un pueblo rural agradecido y sensible. Vamos a tratar de no hacer estas personas ni a ninguno de sus hijos filósofos o hombres de ciencia… de los cuales tenemos amplia oferta. “[9]

Aunque la mayoría de los estadounidenses piensan que la Reserva Federal como una institución del gobierno, esta es de propiedad de las Ocho Familias. El Servicio Secreto es empleado por la Reserva Federal, y no por el Poder Ejecutivo. [10]

Un intercambio entre el senador Edward Kennedy (D-MA) y el entonces presidente de la Fed, Paul Volcker, en las audiencias del Senado en 1982 es instructiva. Kennedy debió pensar en su hermano mayor John cuando le dijo a Volcker que si él fuera ante el comité como miembro del Tesoro de EE.UU. las cosas serían muy diferentes. Volcker, fumando un cigarro, respondió desdeñosamente: “Eso es probablemente cierto. Pero creo que fue diseñado intencionalmente esta manera “. [11] El representante Lee Hamilton (D-NY) lo dijo a Volcker que: “La gente cree que lo que el consejo de los suyos hace no tiene un impacto muy profundo en sus bolsillos, y sin embargo es un grupo de personas, básicamente, inaccesibles para ellos y que no son responsables ante ellos. ”

El presidente Wilson habló de “un poder tan organizado, tan completo, tan penetrante, que mejor no se debía hablar sobre este poder.” Pero el representante Charles Lindberg (D-NY), fue más contundente, clamando contra la Ley de la Reserva Federal aprobada por Woodrow Wilson, que había sido hábilmente apodado el “proyecto de ley del Pueblo”. Lindberg declaró que la Ley, “… establece el Trust más gigantesco en la tierra … Cuando el Presidente firme esta ley, el gobierno invisible movido por el poder del dinero va a ser legitimado. La ley creará inflación cada vez que ellos quieran inflación. A partir de ahora, las depresiones económicas se crearan científicamente. El gobierno invisible por el poder del dinero, que se probó que existe durante la Investigación Trust, va a ser legalizado. Todo el concepto del banco central fue diseñado por el mismo grupo que se suponía debía ser erradicado”. [12]

La Reserva Federal se compone de casi todos los bancos en los EE.UU., pero su agencia de Nueva York es la principal en virtud de sus recursos de capital enorme. El verdadero centro de poder dentro de la Reserva Federal es el Comité Federal de Mercado Abierto (FOMC), en el que sólo el presidente de la Fed de NY tiene un puesto de votación permanente. La FOMC dirige cuestiones sobre la política monetaria que se aplica desde el piso 8 de la Fed de Nueva York, una fortaleza diseñada como el Banco de Inglaterra. [13]

En el quinto piso subterráneo de esta mole de piedra de 14 pisos se encuentran 10.300 toneladas de oro que en su mayoría no pertenece a Estados Unidos, pero que es 1 / 3 de las reservas de oro del mundo. [14]

El mundo del dinero es cada vez más informatizado. Con la introducción de complicados instrumentos financieros -por parte de las Ocho Familias- como derivativos, opciones, opciones de compra a futuro, el volumen de las transacciones interbancarias dio un salto cuántico. Para manejar esto, la Reserva Federal construyó una “autopista” de inquietante conocida como CHIPS (Clearing Interbank Payment System ), que tiene su sede en Nueva York y sigue el modelo de Euro-Clear de Morgan en Bélgica, también conocido como La Bestia.

Cuando la Reserva Federal se creó cinco bancos de New York, Citibank, Chase, Chemical Bank, Manufacturers Hanover y Bankers Trust, tenían una participación del 43% en la Fed de Nueva York. En 1983 estos mismos cinco bancos aumentaron su participación a 53% de la Fed de Nueva York. Para el año 2000, la recién fusionada Citigroup, JP Morgan Chase y Deutsche Bank combinaron sus fuerzas para tener una porción aún mayor, al igual que la facción europea de las Ocho Familias. Colectivamente, poseen acciones mayoritarias en cada corporación del Fortune 500 donde la mayor parte de las acciones y títulos son de renta fija. En 1955, estos cinco bancos representaban el 15% de todas las operaciones de bolsa. En 1985 estaban involucrados en el 85% de todas las transacciones de valores. [15]

Aún más poderosos son los bancos de inversión que llevan los nombres de muchas de las Ocho Familias. En 1982, mientras que el banquero Morgan presidió las negociaciones entre Gran Bretaña y Argentina después de la Guerra de las Malvinas, el presidente Reagan impulsó la Regla 415 de la Comisión de Intercambio (SEC), lo que ayudó a consolidar los valores de suscripción en las manos de seis casas de inversión, propiedad de las Ocho Familias: Goldman Sachs, Merrill Lynch, Morgan Stanley, Salomon Brothers, First Boston y Lehman Brothers. Estos bancos consolidaron su poder a través de la manía de las fusiones de los años 1980 y 1990.

American Express se tragó tanto a Lehman Brothers-Kuhn Loeb -que se había fusionado en 1977- como a Shearson Lehman-Rhoades. La Banca de Israel Moses Seif de la Svizzera Italiana compró una participación del 7% en Lehman Brothers. [16] Salomon Brothers atrapó Philbro de la familia sudafricana Oppenheimer, luego compró Smith Barney. Los tres se convirtieron en parte del Grupo Travelers, dirigidos por Sandy Weill de la familia David-Weill, que controla Lazard Freres a través del socio senior Michel David-Weill. Citibank compró entonces el Grupo Travelers para formar Citigroup. SG Warburg, del cual Chartered Oppenheimer consolidado y posee una participación del 9%, se unió al al Banco BP Paribas, que se fusionó con Merrill Lynch en 1984. Union Bank de Suiza adquirió Paine Webber, mientras que Morgan Stanley Dean Witter compró las operaciones de Discover de Sears.

First Boston, controlado por Kuhn Loeb se fusionó con Credit Suisse, que ya había absorbido White-Weld, para convertirse en CS First Boston -el actor principal en el mercado de eurobonos sucios de Londres. Merrill Lynch -se fusionó con Bank of America en 2008- es el actor principal en este comercio en el lado de EE.UU.. La Sociedad Suiza de Bancos se fusionó con el mayor de Londres, casa de inversiones SG Warburg para crear SBC Warburg, mientras que Warburg se entrelazó más con Merrill Lynch a través de su asociación con Mercury Assets en 1998. El Warburg se formó otra empresa con la Unión de Bancos Suizos, UBS Warburg apoyó la creación. Deutsche Bank compró Fideicomiso Banca y Alex Brown para convertirse por un periódo breve en el banco más grande del mundo, con $ 882 mil millones en activos. Con la derogación de la Ley Glass-Steagal, la línea entre la banca de inversión, la banca comercial y la privada desapareció.

Este puñado de bancos de inversión ejercen una enorme cantidad de control sobre la economía global. Sus actividades incluyen el asesoramiento a países del Tercer Mundo en sus negociaciones de deuda, manejo de las fusiones y la creación de empresas para llenar un vacío económico a través de la puesta en marcha de la oferta inicial pública de acciones (OPI), suscripción de todas las acciones, suscripción de todas las empresas y la emisión de bonos del gobierno, y empujando el carro de la privatización y la globalización de la economía mundial.

Un presidente reciente del Banco Mundial fue James Wolfensohn, de Salomon Smith Barney. Merrill Lynch tenía $ 435 mil millones en activos en 1994, antes de que el frenesí de las fusiones llegara. El mayor banco comercial en el momento, Citibank, sólo tenía $ 249 mil millones en activos.

En 1991, Merrill Lynch manejaba el 26,8% de todas las fusiones globales de bancos. Morgan Stanley manejaba el 16,8%, Goldman Sachs 16,3%, Lehman Brothers 16,1% y Credit Suisse First Boston el 14,5 %. Morgan Stanley hizo $ 60 mil millones en las fusiones de empresas en 1989. Para el año 2007, al reflejarse el efecto de la eliminación de Glass-Steagel, los diez asesores de NMA fueron: Goldman Sachs, Morgan Stanley, Citigroup, JP Morgan Chase, Lehman Brothers, Merrill Lynch, UBS Warburg, Credit Suisse, Deutsche Bank y Lazard. En el campo Underwriting de la bolsa de valores para el año 1991 los cuatro primeros colocados eran Goldman Sachs, Merrill Lynch, Morgan Stanley y CS First Boston. En el ámbito de la privatización global en los años 1985-1995, Goldman Sachs abrió el camino haciendo $ 13,3 mil millones de dólares de sus negocos. UBS Warburg hizo $ 8,2 mil millones, BNP Paribas $ 6,8 mil millones, el CS First Boston $ 4,9 mil millones y BNP -propietario de Merrill Lynch $ 4,4 mil millones. [17]

En 2006 BNP Paribas compró el famoso Banca Nacionale de Lavoro (BNL), que lideró la carga en el armamento de Saddam Hussein. De acuerdo a las finanzas mundiales, ahora es el banco más grande del mundo, con cerca de $ 3 trillones en activos.

Los principales compradores de deuda de EE.UU. en los nueve primeros meses de 1995 llevaban el mismo nombre familiar. Merrill Lynch compró $ 74,2 mil millones en los mercados de deuda de EE.UU., o el 15,3% del total. Lehman Brothers manejaba $ 52,5 mil millones, Morgan Stanley $ 47,4 mil millones, Salomon Smith Barney $ 45,6 mil millones. CS First Boston, Chase Manhattan y Goldman Sachs completan los siete principales. Los tres primeros compradores de deuda municipal de ese año fueron Goldman Sachs, Merrill Lynch y UBS Paine Webber. En el mercado euro -los cuatro primeros suscriptores en 1995 fueron UBS Warburg, Merrill Lynch, Deutsche Bank y Goldman Sachs. [18] Deutsche Bank Morgan Grenfell ingenió la adquisición de sociedades en Europa.

Los actores dominantes en el mercado de futuros de petróleo, tanto en el Intercambio Mercantil de Nueva York como en la Bolsa de Petróleo de Londres son Morgan Stanley Dean Witter, Goldman Sachs (a través de su filial J. Aron), Citigroup (a través de su unidad Philbro) y Deutsche Bank ( a través de la adquisición de Bankers Trust). En 2002 Enron Online fue subastada por una corte de bancarrota para UBS Warburg por $ 0 dólares. UBS fue el primero en compartir los beneficios del monopolio de Enron Online con Lehman Brothers después de los dos primeros años de la operación. [19] En 2008 la desaparición de Lehman, comprado por Barclays hizo con que este último recibiera su parte.

Tras el fiasco de Lehman Brothers y el colapso económico siguiente de 2008, los Cuatro Jinetes de la banca se hicieron aún más grande. JP Morgan Chase adquirió a Bear Stearns y Washington Mutual por centavos. Bank of America Merrill Lynch se apoderó de Countrywide. Wells Fargo tomó el control sobre las oscilaciones de Wachovia Bank de EE.UU.. Barclays tiene un acuerdo ventajoso para los restos de Lehman Brothers.

El ex presidente del Comité Bancario de la Casa de Representantes, Wright Patman (D-TX), declaró sobre la Reserva Federal, y las Ocho Familias, “Estados Unidos tiene hoy en efecto, dos gobiernos. Nosotros somos el gobierno debidamente constituido. Segundo, tenemos un gobierno independiente, sin control y sin coordinación que es el Sistema de la Reserva Federal, que opera los asuntos relacionados al dinero que están reservados constitucionalmente al Congreso”. [20]

Desde la creación de la Reserva Federal, la deuda de EE.UU. (en su mayoría debida a las Ocho Familias) se ha disparado de $ 1 mil millones a mas de $ 14 trillones en la actualidad. Esto supera con creces el total de toda la deuda de los países del tercer mundo combinados. Esos países también deben sus deudas a las mismas Ocho Familias, que poseen la mayoría de todos los bancos centrales del mundo.

Como el senador Barry Goldwater (R-AZ) señaló: “Los banqueros internacionales ganan dinero mediante la extensión de crédito a los gobiernos. Cuanto mayor sea la deuda del estado político, mayor será el interés que se tiene que pagar a los prestamistas. Los bancos centrales de Europa (también) son poseídos y controlados por intereses privados. Reconocemos que es una especie de manera nebulosa en que los Rothschild y los Warburg de Europa y las casas de JP Morgan, Kuhn Loeb & Co., Schiff, Lehman y Rockefeller poseen y controlan la inmensa riqueza. ¿Cómo adquirieron este gran poder financiero y como lo emplean? Es un misterio para la mayoría de nosotros. “[21]

[1] Behold a Pale Horse. William Cooper. Light Technology Press. Sedona, AZ. 1991. p.81

[2] Dope Inc.: The Book that Drove Kissinger Crazy. The Editors of Executive Intelligence Review. Washington, DC. 1992.

[3] Democracy for the Few. Michael Parenti. St. Martin’s Press. New York. 1977. p.67

[4] Descent into Slavery. Des Griffin. Emissary Publications. Pasadena 1991

[5] The Robot’s Rebellion: The Story of the Spiritual Renaissance. David Icke. Gateway Books. Bath, UK. 1994. p.158

[6] The Editors of Executive Intelligence Review. p.504

[7] Ibid

[8] Ibid

[9] Ibid. p.77

[10] “Secrets of the Federal Reserve”. Discovery Channel. January 2002

[11] The Confidence Game: How Un-Elected Central Bankers are Governing the Changed World Economy. Steven Solomon. Simon & Schuster. New York. 1995. p.26

[12] Icke. p.178

[13] Solomon. p.63

[14] Ibid. p.27

[15] The Corporate Reapers: The Book of Agribusiness. A.V. Krebs. Essential Books. Washington, DC. 1992. p.166

[16] The Editors of Executive Intelligence Review. p.79

[17] “Playing the Middle”. Anita Raghavan and Bridget O’Brian. Wall Street Journal. 10-2-95

[18] Securities Data Corporation. 1995

[19] CNN Headline News. 1-11-02

[20] The Rockefeller File. Gary Allen. ’76 Press. Seal Beach, CA. 1977. p.156

[21] Rule by Secrecy: The Hidden History that Connects the Trilateral Commission, the Freemasons and the Great Pyramids. Jim Marrs. HarperCollins Publishers. New York. 2000. p.77

The Federal Reserve Cartel: A Financial Parasite

by Dean Henderson
June 20, 2011

Final Part

United World Federalists founder James Warburg’s father was Paul Warburg, who financed Hitler with help from Brown Brothers Harriman partner Prescott Bush. [1]

Colonel Ely Garrison was a close friend of both President Teddy Roosevelt and President Woodrow Wilson.  Garrison wrote in Roosevelt, Wilson and the Federal Reserve, “Paul Warburg was the man who got the Federal Reserve Act together after the Aldrich Plan aroused such nationwide resentment and opposition.  The mastermind of both plans was Baron Alfred Rothschild of London.”

The Aldrich Plan was hatched at a secret 1910 meeting at JP Morgan’s private resort on Jekyl Island, SC between Rockefeller lieutenant Nelson Aldrich and Paul Warburg of the German Warburg banking dynasty.  Aldrich, a New York congressman, later married into the Rockefeller family.  His son Winthrop Aldrich chaired Chase Manhattan Bank.  While the bankers met, Colonel Edward House, another Rockefeller stooge and close confidant of President Woodrow Wilson, was busy convincing Wilson of the importance of a private central bank and the introduction of a national income tax. A member of House’s staff was British MI6 Permindex insider General Julius Klein. [2]

Wilson didn’t need much convincing, since he was beholden to copper magnate Cleveland Dodge, whose namesake Phelps Dodge became one of the biggest mining companies in the world.  Dodge bankrolled Wilson’s political career. Wilson even wrote his inaugural speech on Dodge’s yacht. [3]

Wilson was a classmate of both Dodge and Cyrus McCormick at Princeton.  Both were directors at Rockefeller’s National City Bank (now Citigroup).  Wilson’s main focus was on overcoming public distrust of the bankers, which New York City Mayor John Hylan echoed in 1911 when he argued, “The real menace to our republic is the invisible government which, like a giant octopus, sprawls its slimy length over our city, state and nation.  At the head is a small group of banking houses, generally referred to as the international bankers”. [4]

But the Eight Families prevailed.  In 1913 the Federal Reserve Bank was born, with Paul Warburg its first Governor.  Four years later the US entered World War I, after a secret society known as the Black Hand assassinated Archduke Ferdinand and his Hapsburg wife.  The Archduke’s friend Count Czerin later said, “A year before the war he informed me that the Masons had resolved upon his death.”[5]

That same year, Bolsheviks overthrew the Hohehzollern monarchy in Russia with help from Max Warburg and Jacob Schiff, while the Balfour Declaration leading to the creation of Israel was penned to Zionist Second Lord Rothschild.

In the 1920’s Baron Edmund de Rothschild founded the Palestine Economics Commission, while Kuhn Loeb’s Manhattan offices helped Rothschild form a network to smuggle weapons to Zionist death squads bent on seizing Palestinian lands.  General Julius Klein oversaw the operation and headed the US Army Counterintelligence Corps, which later produced Henry Kissinger.  Klein diverted Marshall Plan aid to Europe to Zionist terror cells in Palestine after WWII, channeling the funds through the Sonneborn Institute, which was controlled by Baltimore chemical magnate Rudolph Sonneborn.  His wife Dorothy Schiff is related to the Warburgs. [6]

The Kuhn Loebs came to Manhattan with the Warburgs. At the same time the Bronfmans came to Canada as part of the Moses Montefiore Jewish Colonization Committee.  The Montefiores have carried out the dirty work of Genoese nobility since the 13th Century.  The di Spadaforas served that function for the Italian House of Savoy, which was bankrolled by the Israel Moses Seif family for which Israel is named.  Lord Harold Sebag Montefiore is current head of the Jerusalem Foundation, the Zionist wing of the Knights of St. John’s Jerusalem.  The Bronfmans (the name means “liquorman” in Yiddish) tied up with Arnold Rothstein, a product of the Rothschild’s dry goods empire, to found organized crime in New York City.  Rothstein was succeeded by Lucky Luciano, Meyer Lansky, Robert Vesco and Santos Trafficante.  The Bronfmans are intermarried with the Rothschilds, Loebs and Lamberts. [7]

The year 1917 also saw the 16th Amendment added to the US Constitution, levying a national income tax, though it was ratified by only two of the required 36 states.  The IRS is a private corporation registered in Delaware. [8]  Four years earlier the Rockefeller Foundation was launched, to shield family wealth from the new income tax provisions, while steering public opinion through social engineering.  One of its tentacles was the General Education Board.

In Occasional Letter #1 the Board states, “In our dreams we have limitless resources and the people yield themselves with perfect docility to our molding hands. The present education conventions fade from their minds and, unhampered by tradition, we will work our own good will upon a grateful and responsive rural folk.  We shall try not to make these people or any of their children into philosophers or men of learning or men of science…of whom we have ample supply.”[9]

Though most Americans think of the Federal Reserve as a government institution, it is privately held by the Eight Families.  The Secret Service is employed, not by the Executive Branch, but by the Federal Reserve. [10]

An exchange between Sen. Edward Kennedy (D-MA) and Fed Chairman Paul Volcker at Senate hearings in 1982 is instructive.  Kennedy must have thought of his older brother John when he told Volcker that if he were before the committee as a member of US Treasury things would be much different.  Volcker, puffing on a cigar, responded cavalierly, “That’s probably true. But I believe it was intentionally designed this way”. [11]  Rep. Lee Hamilton (D-IN) put it to Volcker that, “People realize that what that board of yours does has a very profound impact on their pocketbooks, and yet it is a group of people basically inaccessible to them and unaccountable to them.”

President Wilson spoke of, “a power so organized, so complete, so pervasive, that they had better not speak above their breaths when they speak in condemnation of it.” Rep. Charles Lindberg (D-NY) was more blunt, railing against Wilson’s Federal Reserve Act, which had cleverly been dubbed the “People’s Bill”.  Lindberg declared that the Act would, “…establish the most gigantic trust on earth…When the president signs this act, the invisible government by the money power will be legitimized.  The law will create inflation whenever the trusts want inflation.  From now on, depressions will be scientifically created.  The invisible government by the money power, proven to exist by the Money Trust Investigation, will be legalized.  The whole central bank concept was engineered by the very group it was supposed to strip of power”. [12]

The Fed is made up of most every bank in the US, but the New York Federal Reserve Bank controls the Fed by virtue of its enormous capital resources.  The true center of power within the Fed is the Federal Open Market Committee (FOMC), on which only the NY Fed President holds a permanent voting seat.  The FOMC issues directives on monetary policy which are implemented from the 8th Floor of the NY Fed, a fortress modeled after the Bank of England. [13]

In the fifth sub-basement of the 14-story stone hulk lie 10,300 tons of mostly non-US gold, 1/3 of the world’s gold reserves and by far the largest gold stock in the world. [14]

The world of money is increasingly computerized.  With the introduction by the Eight Families of complicated financial instruments like derivatives, options, puts and futures; the volume of inter-bank transactions took a quantum leap.  To handle this the fed built a superhighway eerily known as CHIPS (Clearing Interbank Payment System), which is based in New York and modeled after Morgan’s Belgium-based Euro-Clear – also known as The Beast.

When the Fed was created five New York banks- Citibank, Chase, Chemical Bank, Manufacturers Hanover and Bankers Trust- held a 43% stake in the New York Fed.  By 1983 these same five banks owned 53% of the NY Fed.  By year 2000, the newly merged Citigroup, JP Morgan Chase and Deutsche Bank combines owned even bigger chunks, as did the European faction of the Eight Families. Collectively they own majority stock in every Fortune 500 corporation and do the bulk of stock and bond trading.  In 1955 the above five banks accounted for 15% of all stock trades.  By 1985 they were involved in 85% of all stock transactions. [15]

Still more powerful are the investment banks which bear the names of many of the Eight Families. In 1982, while Morgan bankers presided over negotiations between Britain and Argentina after the Falklands War, President Reagan pushed through SEC Rule 415, which helped consolidate securities underwriting in the hands of six large investment houses owned by the Eight Families: Goldman Sachs, Merrill Lynch, Morgan Stanley, Salomon Brothers, First Boston and Lehman Brothers.  These banks further consolidated their power via the merger mania of 1980s and 1990s.

American Express swallowed up both Lehman Brothers-Kuhn Loeb – which had merged in 1977 – and Shearson Lehman-Rhoades.  The Israel Moses Seif’s Banca de la Svizzera Italiana bought a 7% stake in Lehman Brothers. [16]  Salomon Brothers nabbed Philbro from the South African Oppenheimer family, then bought Smith Barney. All three then became part of Traveler’s Group, headed by Sandy Weill of the David-Weill family, which controls Lazard Freres through senior partner Michel David-Weill.  Citibank then bought Travelers to form Citigroup. S.G. Warburg, of which Oppenheimer’s Chartered Consolidated owns a 9% stake, joined the old money Banque Paribas- which merged into Merrill Lynch in 1984.  Union Bank of Switzerland acquired Paine Webber, while Morgan Stanley ate up Dean Witter and purchased Discover credit card operations from Sears.

Kuhn Loeb-controlled First Boston merged with Credit Suisse, which had already absorbed White-Weld, to become CS First Boston- the major player in the dirty London Eurobond market.  Merrill Lynch – merged into Bank of America in 2008 – is the major player on the US side of this trade.  Swiss Banking Corporation merged with London’s biggest investment house S.G. Warburg to create SBC Warburg, while Warburg became more intertwined with Merrill Lynch through their 1998 Mercury Assets tie up.  The Warburg’s formed another venture with Union Bank of Switzerland, creating powerhouse UBS Warburg.  Deutsche Bank bought Banker’s Trust and Alex Brown to briefly become the world’s largest bank with $882 billion in assets.  With repeal of Glass-Steagal, the line between investment, commercial and private banking disappeared.

This handful of investment banks exerts an enormous amount of control over the global economy.  Their activities include advising Third World debt negotiations, handling mergers and breakups, creating companies to fill a perceived economic void through the launching of initial public stock offerings (IPOs), underwriting all stocks, underwriting all corporate and government bond issuance, and pulling the bandwagon down the road of privatization and globalization of the world economy.

A recent president of the World Bank was James Wolfensohn of Salomon Smith Barney.  Merrill Lynch had $435 billion in assets in 1994, before the merger frenzy had really even gotten under way.  The biggest commercial bank at the time, Citibank, could claim only $249 billion in assets.

In 1991 Merrill Lynch handled 26.8% of all global bank mergers.  Morgan Stanley did 16.8%, Goldman Sachs 16.3%, Lehman Brothers 16.1% and Credit Suisse First Boston 14.5%.  Morgan Stanley did $60 billion in corporate mergers in 1989.  By 2007, reflecting the repeal of Glass-Steagel, the top ten NMA advisers in order were: Goldman Sachs, Morgan Stanley, Citigroup, JP Morgan Chase, Lehman Brothers, Merrill Lynch, UBS Warburg, Credit Suisse, Deutsche Bank and Lazard. In the IPO stock underwriting field for 1991 the top four were Goldman Sachs, Merrill Lynch, Morgan Stanley and CS First Boston.  In the arena of global privatization for years 1985-1995, Goldman Sachs led the way doing $13.3 billion worth of deals.  UBS Warburg did $8.2 billion, BNP Paribas $6.8 billion, CS First Boston $4.9 billion and Paribas-owner Merrill Lynch $4.4 billion. [17]

In 2006 BNP Paribas bought the notorious Banca Nacionale de Lavoro (BNL), which led the charge in arming Saddam Hussein. According to Global Finance, it is now the world’s largest bank with nearly $3 trillion in assets.

The leading US debt underwriters for the first nine months of 1995 bore the same familiar names.  Merrill Lynch underwrote $74.2 billion in the US debt markets, or 15.3% of the total.  Lehman Brothers handled $52.5 billion, Morgan Stanley $47.4 billion, Salomon Smith Barney $45.6 billion.  CS First Boston, Chase Manhattan and Goldman Sachs rounded out the top seven.  The top three municipal debt underwriters that year were Goldman Sachs, Merrill Lynch and UBS Paine Webber.  In the euro-market the top four underwriters in 1995 were UBS Warburg, Merrill Lynch, Deutsche Bank and Goldman Sachs. [18]  Deutsche Bank’s Morgan Grenfell branch engineered the corporate takeover binge in Europe.

The dominant players in the oil futures markets at both the New York Mercantile Exchange and the London Petroleum Exchange are Morgan Stanley Dean Witter, Goldman Sachs (through its J. Aron & Company subsidiary), Citigroup (through its Philbro unit) and Deutsche Bank (through its Banker’s Trust acquisition).  In 2002 Enron Online was auctioned off by a bankruptcy court to UBS Warburg for $0.  UBS was to share monopoly Enron Online profits with Lehman Brothers after the first two years of the deal. [19] With Lehman’s 2008 demise, its new owner Barclays will get their cut.

Following the Lehman Brothers fiasco and the ensuing financial meltdown of 2008, the Four Horsemen of Banking got even bigger. For pennies on the dollar, JP Morgan Chase was handed Bear Stearns and Washington Mutual. Bank of America commandeered Merrill Lynch and Countrywide. And Wells Fargo seized control over the reeling #5 US bank Wachovia. Barclays got a sweetheart deal for the remains of Lehman Brothers.

Former House Banking Committee Chairman Wright Patman (D-TX), declared of Federal Reserve Eight Families owners, “The United States today has in effect two governments.  We are the duly constituted government.  Then we have an independent, uncontrolled and uncoordinated government in the Federal Reserve System, operating the money powers which are reserved to Congress by the Constitution”. [20]

Since the creation of the Federal Reserve, US debt (mostly owed to the Eight Families) has skyrocketed from $1 billion to nearly $14 trillion today.  This far surpasses the total of all Third World country debt combined, debt which is mostly owed to these same Eight Families, who own most all the world’s central banks.

As Sen. Barry Goldwater (R-AZ) pointed out, “International bankers make money by extending credit to governments.  The greater the debt of the political state, the larger the interest returned to lenders.  The national banks of Europe are (also) owned and controlled by private interests.  We recognize in a hazy sort of way that the Rothschilds and the Warburgs of Europe and the houses of JP Morgan, Kuhn Loeb & Co., Schiff, Lehman and Rockefeller possess and control vast wealth.  How they acquire this vast financial power and employ it is a mystery to most of us.”[21]

[1] Behold a Pale Horse. William Cooper. Light Technology Press. Sedona, AZ. 1991. p.81

[2] Dope Inc.: The Book that Drove Kissinger Crazy. The Editors of Executive Intelligence Review. Washington, DC. 1992.

[3] Democracy for the Few. Michael Parenti. St. Martin’s Press. New York. 1977. p.67

[4] Descent into Slavery. Des Griffin. Emissary Publications. Pasadena 1991

[5] The Robot’s Rebellion: The Story of the Spiritual Renaissance. David Icke. Gateway Books. Bath, UK. 1994. p.158

[6] The Editors of Executive Intelligence Review. p.504

[7] Ibid

[8] Ibid

[9] Ibid. p.77

[10] “Secrets of the Federal Reserve”. Discovery Channel. January 2002

[11] The Confidence Game: How Un-Elected Central Bankers are Governing the Changed World Economy. Steven Solomon. Simon & Schuster. New York. 1995. p.26

[12] Icke. p.178

[13] Solomon. p.63

[14] Ibid. p.27

[15] The Corporate Reapers: The Book of Agribusiness. A.V. Krebs. Essential Books. Washington, DC. 1992. p.166

[16] The Editors of Executive Intelligence Review. p.79

[17] “Playing the Middle”. Anita Raghavan and Bridget O’Brian. Wall Street Journal. 10-2-95

[18] Securities Data Corporation. 1995

[19] CNN Headline News. 1-11-02

[20] The Rockefeller File. Gary Allen. ’76 Press. Seal Beach, CA. 1977. p.156

[21] Rule by Secrecy: The Hidden History that Connects the Trilateral Commission, the Freemasons and the Great Pyramids. Jim Marrs. HarperCollins Publishers. New York. 2000. p.77

Derivatives: The Real Reason Bernanke Funnels Trillions Into Wall Street

by Graham Summers

We’ve been over the numerous BS excuses that US Dollar destroyer extraordinaire Ben Bernanke has made for QE enough times that today I’d rather simply focus on the REAL reason he continues to funnel TRILLIONS of Dollars into the Wall Street Banks.

I’ve written this analysis before. But given the enormity of what it entails, it’s worth repeating. The following paragraphs are the REAL reason Bernanke does what he does no matter what any other media outlet, book, investment expert, or guru tell you.

Bernanke is printing money and funneling it into the Wall Street banks for one reason and one reason only. That reason is: DERIVATIVES.

According to the Office of the Comptroller of the Currency’s Quarterly Report on Bank Trading and Derivatives Activities for the Second Quarter 2010 (most recent), the notional value of derivatives held by U.S. commercial banks is around $223.4 TRILLION.

Five banks account for 95% of this. Can you guess which five?

gpc 11-10-3 top five derivative exposure

Looks a lot like a list of the banks that Ben Bernanke has focused on bailing out/ backstopping/ funneling cash since the Financial Crisis began, doesn’t it? When you consider the insane level of risk exposure here, you can see why the TRILLIONS he’s funneled into these institutions has failed to bring them even to pre-Lehman bankruptcy levels.

gpc 2-8-1

Ben Bernanke is a stooge and a fraud, but he is at least partially honest in his explanations of why he wants to keep printing money. The reason is to try to keep interest rates low. Granted, he’s failing miserably at this, but at least he understands the goal.

Of course, Bernanke tells the public and Congress that the reason we need low interest rates is to support housing prices. He doesn’t mention that $188 TRILLION of the $223 TRILLION in notional value of derivatives sitting on the Big Banks’ balance sheets is related to interest rates.

Yes, $188 TRILLION. That’s thirteen times the US’ entire GDP, and nearly four times WORLD GDP.

Now, of course, not ALL of this money is “at risk,” since the same derivatives can be traded/spread out dozens of ways by different banks as a means of dispersing risk.

However, given the amount of money at stake, if even 4% of this money is “at risk” and 10% of that 4% goes wrong, you’ve wiped out ALL of the equity at the top five banks.

Put another way, Bank of America (BAC), JP Morgan (JPM), Goldman (GS), and Citibank (C) would CEASE to exist.

If you think that I’m making this up or that Bernanke doesn’t know about this, consider that his predecessor, Alan Greenspan, knew as early as 1999 that the derivative market, if forced into the open and through a public clearing house, would “implode” the market. This is DOCUMENTED. And you better believe Greenspan told Bernanke this.

In this light, all of Bernanke’s monetary policies and efforts are focused on doing one thing and one thing only: trying to shore up the overleveraged, derivative-riddled balance sheets of the Too Big to Fails, or Too Bloated to Exist, as I like to call them.

The fact that the bank executives taking this money and using it to pay themselves and their employees record bonuses only confirms that these folks have NO interest in taking care of shareholders or their businesses. They’re just going to take the money and run for as long as this scheme works.

I don’t know when this will come unraveled. But it WILL. At some point the $600+ TRILLION behemoth that is the derivatives market will implode again. When it does, no amount of money printing will save the Too Bloated To Exist banks’ balance sheets.

At that point, it’s game over for Wall Street and the Fed.

Goldman Sachs Defrauded Investors, sent bailout outside U.S.A

by Karen Mracek and Thomas Beaumont

Goldman Sachs sent $4.3 billion in federal tax money to 32 entities, including many overseas banks, hedge funds and pensions, according to information made public Friday night.Goldman Sachs disclosed the list of companies to the Senate Finance Committee after a threat of subpoena from Sen. Chuck Grassley, R-Ia.

 Asked the significance of the list, Grassley said, “I hope it’s as simple as taxpayers deserve to know what happened to their money.”

 He added, “We thought originally we were bailing out AIG. Then later on … we learned that the money flowed through AIG to a few big banks, and now we know that the money went from these few big banks to dozens of financial institutions all around the world.”

 Grassley said he was reserving judgment on the appropriateness of U.S. taxpayer money ending up overseas until he learns more about the 32 entities.

 SETTLEMENT: Goldman Sachs admits it misled investors, pays $550M fine

GOLDMAN CONSENT: SEC vs. Goldman Sachs

JUDGEMENT: Final judgement of defendant

 Goldman Sachs (GS) received $5.55 billion from the government in fall of 2008 as payment for then-worthless securities it held in AIG. Goldman had already hedged its risk that the securities would go bad. It had entered into agreements to spread the risk with the 32 entities named in Friday’s report.

 Overall, Goldman Sachs received a $12.9 billion payout from the government’s bailout of AIG, which was at one time the world’s largest insurance company.

 Goldman Sachs also revealed to the Senate Finance Committee that it would have received $2.3 billion if AIG had gone under. Other large financial institutions, such as Citibank, JPMorgan Chase and Morgan Stanley, sold Goldman Sachs protection in the case of AIG’s collapse. Those institutions did not have to pay Goldman Sachs after the government stepped in with tax money.

 Shouldn’t Goldman Sachs be expected to collect from those institutions “before they collect the taxpayers’ dollars?” Grassley asked. “It’s a little bit like a farmer, if you got crop insurance, you shouldn’t be getting disaster aid.”

 Goldman had not disclosed the names of the counterparties it paid in late 2008 until Friday, despite repeated requests from Elizabeth Warren, chairwoman of the Congressional Oversight Panel.

 “I think we didn’t get the information because they consider it very embarrassing,” Grassley said, “and they ought to consider it very embarrassing.”

 FINANCIAL REFORM: How Congress rewrote the regulations

FIXED? Will new regulations prevent future meltdowns?

FINANCIAL OVERHAUL AND YOU: Mortgages, debit cards, loans, more

 The initial $85 billion to bail out AIG was supplemented by an additional $49.1 billion from the Troubled Asset Relief Program, known as TARP, as well as additional funds from the Federal Reserve. AIG’s debt to U.S. taxpayers totals $133.3 billion outstanding.

 “The only thing I can tell you is that people have the right to know, and the Fed and the public’s business ought to be more public,” Grassley said.

 The list of companies receiving money includes a few familiar foreign banks, such as the Royal Bank of Scotland and Barclays.

 DZ AG Deutsche Zantrake Genossenschaftz Bank, a German cooperative banking group, received $1.2 billion, more than a quarter of the money Goldman paid out.

 Warren, in testimony Wednesday, said that the rescue of AIG “distorted the marketplace by turning AIG’s risky bets into fully guaranteed transactions. Instead of forcing AIG and its counterparties to bear the costs of the company’s failure, the government shifted those costs in full onto taxpayers.”

 Grassley stressed the importance of transparency in the marketplace, as well as in the government’s actions.

 “Just like the government, markets need more transparency, and consequently this is some of that transparency because we’ve got to rebuild confidence to make the markets work properly,” Grassley said.

 AIG received the bailout of $85 billion at the discretion of the Federal Reserve Bank of New York, which was led at the time by Timothy Geithner. He now is U.S. treasury secretary.

 “I think it proves that he knew a lot more at the time than he told,” Grassley said. “And he surely knew where this money was going to go. If he didn’t, he should have known before they let the money out of their bank up there.”

 An attempt to reach Geithner Friday night through the White House public information office was unsuccessful.

 Grassley has for years pushed to give the Government Accountability Office more oversight of the Federal Reserve.

 U.S. Rep. Bruce Braley, a Waterloo Democrat, said he would propose that the House subcommittee on oversight and investigations convene hearings on the need for more Federal Reserve oversight. Braley is a member of the subcommittee.

 Braley said of Geithner, “I would assume he would be someone we would want to hear from because he would have firsthand knowledge.”

 Braley also noted that the AIG bailout was negotiated under President George W. Bush, a Republican.

 He said he was confident that the financial regulatory reform bill signed by President Obama this week would help provide better oversight than the AIG bailout included.

 “There was no regulatory framework in place,” Braley said. “We had to put something in place to begin reining them in. I’m confident they will begin to be able to do that.”